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The Balancing of Vowel Inventories Introduction Figure 1 – The IPA Vowel Chart A vowel is defined by Merriam-Webster as “one of a class of speech sounds in the articulation of which the oral part of the breath channel is not blocked and is not constricted enough to cause audible friction (Vowel).” There are over 7000 confirmed languages discovered so far on the planet, and every single one of them contains vowels (How Many Languages).
the vowel sound in many lightly pronounced unaccented syllables in words of more than one syllable. ﻛﻴﻒ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ال schwa؟ ﻨﻄﻖ ﻛـ vowelﺧﻔﻴﻒ ً ﺟﺪا, الُschwaﺗَ داﺋﻤﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺸﺪد ﻋﻠﻰ ال vowelﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ,واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻵﺧﺮ ﻧﻨﻄﻖ ال vowelﺧﻔﻴﻒ ً أي ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻄﻖ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ً ﺟﺪا. ﻣﺜﺎل , pencil :اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ penﻣﺸﺪد ,واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ cilﺧﻔﻴﻒ ] [ pens∂l ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻨﻄﻖ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻧﻨﻄﻖ اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﺑﻨﺒﺮة أﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ. ﻓﺎﻟـ vowelاﻟﺬي ﻧﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ً ﺟﺪا ﻫﻮ ﻋﺎدة الschwa . ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ اﻟـstress : ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ أﻣﻮر ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ال stressﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ: ً: أوﻻ ﻫﻨﺎك ﻧﻮﻋﺎن ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ Syllables: ( Heavy Syllablesﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺛﻘﻴﻠﺔ ) ( Light Syllablesﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ (. ﻛﻴﻒ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ اﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺧﻔﻴﻒ أو ﺛﻘﻴﻞ؟! ﻫﻨﺎك ﺷﺮوط ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ: ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ اﻟﺜﻘﻴﻠﺔ: 1ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ vowelﺛﻘﻲلوال vowelاﻟﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﻫﻮ long vowels and diphthongs : 2-ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ 1 consonants أﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ اﻟﺨﻔﻴﻔﺔ: 1ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ vowelﺧﻔﻲفوﻫﻮ :الshort vowels 2-ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺼﻮت واﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ال consonantsﻻ أﻛﺜﺮ. ﻫﺬه اﻷﻣﺮ اﻷول اﻟﺬي ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ :أﻧﻮاع اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ____________________________________ اﻷﻣﺮ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ :ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ اﻟﻤﻘﺎطع ﻫﻨﺎك ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺎت ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ : اوﻻ ante : ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ pen : ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎult: ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ultimalte = ult : واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ = penultimate = pen واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ = untepenultimate = ante ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ذﻟﻚ ً ﺟﻴﺪا. ___________________________ اﻷﻣﺮ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ :ﻗﺎﻋﺪة وﺿﻊ الStress ً ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻧﻌﺮف ﻫﻞ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ أﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ verbأو اﺳﻢ noun , أوﻻ ﺑﻌﺪ أن ﻧﺤﺪد ﻧﻮع اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻧﺘﺒﻊ اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ : ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎل: ً :ﻧﺤﺪد ﻧﻮع اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ = Ult : أوﻻ إن ﻛﺎن ً ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺎ ) ﻳﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ vowelﺧﻔﻴﻒ -ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑـ consonantواﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ( : ﻓﺴﻨﻀﻊ ال stressﻋﻠﻰ ال = penاﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻢة أﻣﺎ إن ﻛﺎن ﺛﻘﻴً ﻼ ) ﻳﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ vowelﺛﻘﻴﻞ -ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ واﺣﺪ consonant ) : ﻓﺴﻨﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ ﻋﺪد اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ syllablesﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﻄﺎة: 1ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﻮا ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ :ﻧﻀﻊ ال stressﻋﻠﻰ ال = ultاﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ.2ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﻮا أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ :ﻧﻀﻊ ال stressﻋﻠﻰ ال = anteاﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ.: ﻫﺬا ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎل. ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﺳﻤﺎء: ً :ﺳﻨﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ ﻋﺪد اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ : أوﻻ إن ﻛﺎن ﻋﺪدﻫﺎ ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ :ﻧﻀﻊ ال stressﻋﻠﻰ ال = penاﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ. إن ﻛﺎن أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ: ﺳﻨﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ ال vowelاﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد ﻓﻲ الult : -1إن ﻛﺎن ﺛﻘﻴﻞ ) أي long vowelأو :
It’s also important to note that I’ve taken a few ideas from Hebrew and Arabic in that the script is mostly consonant based, dropping vowels completely or using them only when at the beginning or ends of words or are necessary (not implied) for pronunciation.
CONSONANTS Letter Sound Value(s) b Usually /b/, but in sb(r) /sp(r)/ d Usually /d/, but in sd(r) /st(r)/ dh Usually /ð/, but word-finally /θ/, in dhr /θr/ and in sdh(r) /sθ(r)/ f Always /f/ fh Always /v/ g Usually /g/, but in ng /nx/ (never /ŋ/ or /ŋg/) and in sg(r) /sx(r)/ gh Usually /ɣ/, but effectively silent in word-final positions h Word-initially and between two vowels /h/ Otherwise modifies a preceding consonant (d, f or g) k Always /k/ l Always /l/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /l:/ m Always /m/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /m:/ Can be found without a vowel at the end of a word in dhm /ðm̩/ and ghm /ɣm̩/ n Always /n/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /n:/ r Always /r/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /r:/ Often modifies the value of a preceding vowel s Always /s/, when written doubled is lengthened significantly to /s:/ w y - Always /w/ Never modifies the value of a preceding vowel Always /j/ Often modifies the value of a preceding vowel Always a glottal stop /ʔ/ VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS Letter(s) a au Sound Value(s) Usually /æ/, but in word-final positions /ə/ and in ay /aɪ.j/ Always /ɔʊ/ e Usually /e/, but virtually silent in word-final positions and in ey /eɪ.j/ ea Always /ɪjæ/ eo Always /ɪjɒ/ i Usually /ɪ/, but in iy /i:.j/ o Usually /ɒ/, but in oy /ɔɪ.j/ ou Always /aʊ/ u Always /u/, but in word-final positions long /u:/ RHOTICITY Vowels followed by r (in word-final positions or before another consonant) gain rhoticity and are usually lengthened:
palatalization → 02D9 ˙ dot above 0308 $̈ COMBINING DIAERESIS = double dot above, umlaut = Greek dialytika = double derivative → 00A8 ¨ diaeresis 0309 $̉ COMBINING HOOK ABOVE = hoi • kerns left or right of circumflex over vowels • Vietnamese tone mark → 02C0 ˀ modifier letter glottal stop 030A $̊ COMBINING RING ABOVE → 00B0 ° degree sign → 02DA ˚ ring above 030B $̋ COMBINING DOUBLE ACUTE ACCENT • Hungarian, Chuvash → 0022 " quotation mark → 02BA ʺ modifier letter double prime → 02DD ˝ double acute accent 030C $̌ COMBINING CARON = hacek, V above → 02C7 ˇ caron 030D $̍ 030E $̎ 030F $̏ 0310 $̐ 0311 $̑ 0312 $̒ 0313 $̓ 0314 $̔ 0315 $̕ 0316 0317 0318 0319 031A $̖ $̗ $̘ $̙ $̚ 031B $̛ 031C $̜ 031D $̝ 031E $̞ 031F $̟ 0320 $̠ 0321 $̡ 0322 $̢ 0322 COMBINING VERTICAL LINE ABOVE • this is not the Greek tonos • Marshallese → 02C8 ˈ modifier letter vertical line COMBINING DOUBLE VERTICAL LINE ABOVE • Marshallese → 0022 " quotation mark COMBINING DOUBLE GRAVE ACCENT • Serbian and Croatian poetics COMBINING CANDRABINDU → 0901 $ँ devanagari sign candrabindu COMBINING INVERTED BREVE → 0487 $҇ combining cyrillic pokrytie COMBINING TURNED COMMA ABOVE = cedilla above • Latvian (but not used in decomposition) → 02BB ʻ modifier letter turned comma COMBINING COMMA ABOVE = Greek psili, smooth breathing mark • Americanist:
Problem 4 How many 7-letter words can be constructed by using the 26 letters of the alphabet if each word contains 1, 2, or 3 vowels?
BASEMENTS you cannot give a proper name for nights that end like these these crowded hallways never left us any room to breathe we stayed up until we knew the house had fallen back asleep and we held our breaths took off our clothes and kept good company basements of the houses that didn’t feel quite like our homes yet we played our secret games and we would listen for the footsteps thirteen years of silent music waiting in the wings you’re drawing dragons on your arms, you’re covering your sleeves and ten years pass and skin is easy battles have been fought but you still keep the doors unlocked, fingers crossed that you’ll get caught basements of the houses that didn’t feel quite like our homes yet we played our secret games and we would listen for the footsteps basements they need cleaning lives bereft of proper meaning someday your skin will find it keep on touching keep on dreaming you’re not alone SAFE open bar ten dollar cover you come alone and undiscovered vowels removed from every title prayer hands peace signs new disciples silhouettes and stern expressions “this next song’s called ‘my depression’ i wrote it at three am when i was stoned and i hope you like it” chase or be chased you play too safe won’t you speak up don’t you want change isn’t this how we both got here in the first place the camera pans the party’s petty and throwing shade is the new confetti their critiques are our excuses counting blessings counting bruises undercover and overthinking i shouldn’t smoke when i’ve been drinking can we just talk about it when we’re coming home BREATHPLAY eyes lock i know nothing about you another face in a square tile “it’s a pleasure to meet you” small talk make a bad first impression i will lie about what i do so you don’t ask me questions false start “could you show me your bathroom” i need a minute to myself before i start to touch you clothes off keep your hands where i can see them where has your body been weekend you have kept yourself hidden you will take the express down after tucking her kids in he’ll host as long as you pay off his debt you find the less you belong there the louder the sex will get skin thick but young enough to be your son you’ll be swallowing your pride when he’s swallowing your cum let go this is your little secret are you willing to keep it NAME ALL THE ANIMALS waking up on the weekend to the sound of your sleeping all the pillows are stacked atop your face we drank all of the sake we skipped out on the party we are hungover in our hiding place i stumble to your bathroom this floor could use a vacuum your roommate’s cat watches me piss after our staring contest i return to our lovenest and fail to wake you with a kiss sleep tight, name all the animals jack herer and palo santo watch the smoke as it billows tucked away from this sad state of affairs you could waste all of my time skipping class missing deadlines i’d rather lay here with you than go out there i’ll put on a grouper record as i try to remember the last time that i slept alone you taught me to be patient when floodwater hits the pavement this ark we’ve built we’ll make our home sit tight, name all the animals PLAYGROUNDS duct tape around the mouth before i leave the house no one will bat an eye they never know what i’m talking about i’m stepping on your toes they told me not to look down this isn’t my old playground i will try my best not to hide behind my phone when did we ever learn or is this nothing new when our feelings get hurt we speak in absolutes when did we ever learn or is this nothing new with our hands in the dirt we learn to tell the truth the songs we sing all say “we aren’t kids no more” when nothing’s really changed our feet have just begun to reach the floor they put me in time out but i’ll still eat the glue when i know that you’re not looking i cannot afford to be myself with you
Problem 11 (Mandatory) What is the number of ways to order the 26 letters of the alphabet so that no two of the vowels a,e,i,o,u occur consecutively?
On a Korean handset, consonants are on the left, vowels on the right and the fingers alternate so fast you can barely follow them.
Movement V *This should be sung to phrases from the refrain, arranged so that the vowels suit the singer's tessitura with much use of long melismata.
- a dash is simply used to aid in pronounciation, usually if two like vowels follow each other, as in the word “da-at.” In Hebrew, the accent generally falls on the last syllable, however it sometimes falls somewhere else in the word.