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2013 Foray et al CBP 100%
i) development at low temperatures improves the cold tolerance of parasitoid wasps, ii) the shape of the cold tolerance reaction norm differs between the two populations, and iii) these phenotypic variations are correlated with their metabolic proﬁles.
10.1111/gcbb.12080 Mass-flowering crops increase richness of cavity-nesting bees and wasps in modern agro-ecosystems € T E R * , F R A N Z I S K A P E T E R * † , B I R G I T J A U K E R * , V O L K M A R W O L T E R S * and T I M D I E K OT FRANK JAUKER* *Department of Animal Ecology, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, Giessen, D-35392, Germany, †Deptartment of Conservation Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps University, Karl-von-Frisch-Str.
To date, no study has been undertaken to analyse the impact of fluctuating thermal regimes on the survival of cold-exposed parasitic wasps.
Stinging Wasps 54 points each fast attack unit The Stinging Wasps embody the fury of Khaine by utilizing hit and run tactics, repeatedly attacking and retreating in a swarm until their enemy is destroyed.
However, when examining adult longevity, we found an inverse linear relation with developmental temperature, conWrming the usual rule that larger and fatter wasps live longer than smaller ones.
Developmental temperature is known to induce phenotypic plasticity in body mass and fat reserves, wasps coming from a rearing at 15 1C being larger (size), heavier (dry mass) and fatter (fat content) than wasps developing at 25 1C (Colinet et al., 2007a).
Spiders can spin webs, wasps can sting, bees can fly, glow-worms can produce light, and so on.
colemani at 0⬚C results in low emergence, and storage at 7⬚C seems to be difÞcult because the wasps develop and emerge at this temperature (Hofsvang and Hagvar 1977).
In parasitoid wasps, reproduction occurs by arrhenotokous parthenogenesis:
When host size and quality vary, parasitoid wasps are expected to oviposit more females in high quality hosts, because the fitness of sons suffers less from being small than the fitness of the daughters, who will have to produce eggs in turn (Charnov et al., 1981).