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IS ZHANG YIMOU A SELFORIENTALIST? Lawson Jiang Film 132B: International Cinema, 1960present February 5, 2016 TA: Isabelle Carbonell Section D Along with the rise of the Fifth Generation directors,1 the contemporary Chinese cinema has gained more popularities on the international film festivals since the early 1990s. While these films presenting the local Chinese culture are well received internationally, the Fifth Generation directors, particularly Zhang Yimou, are often denounced for their selfOrientalist filmmaking practice of selling films packaged with exoticized Chineseness to the Western audience. Based on the belief that the interpretations on cinema can result differently according to various ideological reading, the assertion that Zhang deploys Orientalism in his films can be a result of misinterpretation. This article—through reviewing several books and journals about his 1992 film adaptation Raised the Red Lantern —will explore how Zhang is perceived by various Chinese and Hong Kong scholars in order to find out whether or not he is a selfOrientalist. Zhang, the cinematographerturneddirector who began his career after graduated from Beijing Film Academy in 1983, has been receiving both extreme acknowledgments and criticisms on his films such as Hero (2002), House of Flying Daggers (2004), Curse of the Golden Flower (2006) from the Chinese film critics. On the one hand, Zhang is recognized as a successful director of commercial productions; on the other hand, these commercial titles are also criticized for their banalities due to the lack of depth in storytelling.2 Hero , along with his earlier work Raise the Red Lantern , are criticized by some Chinese journalist as selfOrientalist exercises catering the West. Despite Red Lantern astonishes many Western audience, the film, in 1 The Fifth Generation refers to the group of Chinese directors began their filmmaking since the 1980s. Some of the notable figures are Zhang Yimou, Zhang Yimou, Feng Xiaogang, and Chen Kaige. Although the Sixth Generation emerged in the mid1990s, some the Fifth Generation directors like Zhang Yimou and Feng Xiaogang continues their productions and has become more commercialoriented in Mainland China. 2 I found a brief comment in the entry page of Hero on Douban.com during the research, it goes “Zhang, you should stick back to your cinematography, but not directing.” Lawson Jiang 1 the eyes of a native Beijinger, as Dai Qing3 comments, is “really shot for the casual pleasures of foreigners [who] can go on and muddleheadedly satisfy their oriental fetishisms.”4 Dai, from a native perspective, criticizes that Red Lantern —though the red lanterns provide stunning visual motif—represents a false image of China in terms of the miseenscene. First, Dai notices the Zhangish Chineseness on the walls of the third wife’s room are decorated with large Peking opera masks, which is a major symbol of Chineseness that did not come into fashion until the 1980s and even then only among certain “selfstyled avantgarde” artists would like to show off their “hipness” through these mask decorations. The third wife “would never have thought of decking her walls with those oversized masks,”5 hinting that Zhang is the one who is responsible for this historical mistake in his production. Second, Dai points out that Zhang has also made a fundamental—and the foremost—mistake on the portrayal of the Master: I have never seen nor heard nor read in any book anything remotely resembling the highhanded and flagrant way in which this “master” flaunts the details of his sex life. Even Ximen Qing, the protagonist of the erotic Chinese classic Jin Ping Mei and the archetype of the unabashedly libidinous male, saw fit to maintain a discreet demeanor in negotiating his way among his numerous wives, concubines, and mistresses, and even then he had to resort occasionally to sending a servant to tender his excuses.6 The speaking of one’s sex life has been treated as a taboo in Chinese society—a topic that is forbidden to be brought up publicly—even in the present. As a result, such a portrayal of the 3 Chinese people who do not have an English name, in the English context, would usually have their names sorted in the same order as they are in the Chinese context (family name goes first and given name goes after) In this case, Dai Qing is referred by Dai as Zhang Yimou is referred by Zhang . 4 Dai Qing, “Raised Eyebrows for Raise the Red Lantern.” Translated by Jeanne Tai. Public Culture 5, no. 2 (1993): 336. 5 Ibid., 335. 6 Ibid., 334. Lawson Jiang 2 Master’s sex life, in a traditional sense, is a major flaw of the filmic setting. Dai understands that it is inevitable for Zhang to exoticize and to sell the Chineseness to the Western audience as Zhang is “a serious filmmaker being forced to make a living outside his own country,” suggesting that it is worth the Chinese audience’s sympathy to some extent.7 Dai identifies herself as a person who belongs to the generation of Chinese whose sensibilities have been “ravaged by the Maostyle proletarian culture,”8 Dai—along with her generation who are not allowed and are unable to interpret films from other philosophical perspective—can only seek extreme authenticities in films. “I know nothing about film theory, cinematic techniques, auteurs, schools,” Dai declares in the first paragraph of her journal, “my only criterion is how I respond emotionally to a film.”9 With the Maostyled materialistic influence, Dai’s generation can no longer enjoy any new fashions and trends that she labels as “halfbaked” and that the experiencing of new attempts of storytelling and filmic presentation as “sensibilityrisking.”10 To Dai’s generation, authenticity is the only criteria concerned in judging a film. Whatever reflects the real Chineseness—the Chineseness that is culturally and historically correct—is considered a good film. That is, authenticity provides emotional satisfactions. Raise the Red Lantern , unfortunately, fails to accomplish these two tasks, and the lack of understanding on film theory limits Dai’s interpretation on Red Lantern . She would have been surprised that the red lantern motif that makes her raising eyebrows does far more than that: a basic reading of the lantern, for example, can be viewed as a reinforcement of male authority, while the color of red implies the state of purgatory that the wives suffer in the household—any 7 Ibid., 337. Ibid., 336. 9 Ibid., 333. 10 Ibid., 336. 8 Lawson Jiang 3 of these symbolic implications can easily be identified by the younger generation of Chinese audience. Dai’s demand on authenticities leads to a deviation from reading the theme, that what she has observed from the film are only twisted cultural products; the exotic Chineseness contrived by Zhang. Hence, Dai’s focus on reading the filmic setting rather than the theme results in a biased comment denouncing Zhang as a selfOrientalist. Jane Ying Zha, a Chinese writer from Beijing—the same city where Dai is from—adopts a relatively moderate view on Red Lantern . In her journal “Lore Segal, Red Lantern, and Exoticism” Zha does not perceives the film as “a work of realism in a strict sense” as “some of the details in the movie seem exaggerated, even false, to any historically informed and realisticminded audience.”11 That is, Red Lantern does not attempt, in any sense, to accurately reflect the history of feudal China, but to present the woman’s suffering under the patriarchy in the feudal context. The context functions as a “stage” assisting the director to achieve his expression that is alterable to be set in modern China—while the notion of patriarchal oppression is remain firmly unchanged. Zha views the film as a formalistic exercise due to Zhang’s cinematographic expertise built up earlier in his career, which shares a similar perspective with Rey Chow, who writes in her book Primitive Passions , “the symmetrical screen organizations of architectural details, and the refinedlooking furniture, utensils, food, and costumes in Rain the Red Lantern are all part and parcel of the recognizable cinematographic expertise of Zhang and his collaborators.”12 Zha is impressed by the camera work that deliberately avoid giving closeup to the Master as “[Zhang] thought nothing of shooting the awkwardly melodramatic scenes from the eyes of a Jane Ying Zha, “Lore Segal, Red Lantern, and Exoticism.” Public Culture 5, no. 2 (1993): 331. Rey Chow, Primitive Passions: Visuality, Sexuality, Ethnography, and Contemporary Chinese Cinema. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), 143. 11 12 Lawson Jiang 4
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INFO@CHINESECHAMBER.COM Lilian Zhang Lilian Zhang comes to Honolulu for this special event from China to introduce exclusive high end designs from her Couture, Shanghai QiLian Fashion Company.
Brilliant, unpredictable Zhang Fei: ... Honorable, brave, tactical Zhang He:
A Real-time Interactive Audio-Visual System for Buddhist Mudras Exploration Yun Zhang, Yijun Zhou, Mark Rau 102 Athletics &
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1.0 April 11, 2014 CONTENTS 内容 n GENERAL INFORMATION 主要特征描述 n EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS 外形尺寸 n ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS 极限参数 n ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 模块电气特性 n BACKLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS 背光电气特性 n ELECTRO-OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS 光电参数 n INTERFACE DESCRIPTION 接口定义描述 n REFERENCE APPLICATION CIRCUIT 参考应用电路 n RELIABILITY TEST CONDITIONS 可靠性试验条件 n INSPECTION CRITERION 检查标准 n PRECAUTIONS FOR USING LCD MODULES 使用注意事项 n PACKING SPECIFICATION 包装规格书 n PRIOR CONSULT MATTER 提前商议事项 n FACTORY CONTACT INFORMATION 工厂联系信息 WRITTEN BY 制作 CHECKED BY 检查 APPROVED BY 核准 HUANG SU LING ZHANG SHUI ZHANG SHU HANG P.3 n GENERAL INFORMATION 主要特征描述 Item of general information 项目 LCD Type 液晶显示类型 Recommended Viewing Direction 模块推荐使用方向 Module area (W ´ H´T) 模块外围尺寸 (宽 ´ 高´厚) Active area (W´H) 有效区域 (宽 ´ 高) Number of Dots 点阵 Pixel pitch (W ´ H) 像素间隙(宽 ´ 高) Driver IC 驱动集成电路 Interface Type 接口类型 Input voltage 输入电压 Module Power consumption 模块功耗 Colors 色彩 Backlight Type 背光类型 Weight 重量 Contents 内容 TFT/TRANSMISSIVE Unit 单位 / Full viewing angle O’ Clock 77.52×139.55×1.41 mm3 74.52×132.48 mm2 1440RGB×2560 / 0.05175×0.05175 mm2 NT35598 MIPI IOVCC=1.8,AVDD=5.8,AVEE=-5.8 / / V 1350 mw 16.7M LED 25.3 / / g P.4 n EXTERNAL DIMENSIONS 外形尺寸 0.05175 0.05175 0.01725 FPC展开出货 (0.6) (1.2) 74.52(AA) (1.5) (1.47) (1.18) (0.47) 77.52±0.2 76.32±0.2( TFT) 75.12±0.2(推荐开窗） 1.41±0.15 厚度不包括保护膜 接口定义 132.48（ AA) 139.55±0.2 138.88±0.2(TFT) 133.08±0.2(推荐开窗） TS598-13-C-P2S8-T XXXXXXa (7.85) (4.8) (0.96) (5) 弯折参考 (1.02) (19.07) (16.65) (5.75) (7.56) (4.85) 71.57±0.2 0.7(MAX) (5.56) (0.39) (6) 2.5±0.3 4 (1.22) (8.66) (4.54) (2.97) (7.07) (9.62) 27.77±0.2 (6.74) 32.9±0.3 (5.11) (17.74) (16.32) (1.85) 焊盘高度0.3MAX 焊盘不可接触导体 PROTECT GLUE 3.5±0.3 0.6±0.02 +0.04 0.3±0.020.3-0.03 0.3±0.1 1±0.1 1.1±0.1 2.1±0.1 2.25±0.1 13.8±0.07 13.2±0.03 CONTECT SIDE 2.5±0.3 0.2±0.03 13.8±0.3 0.1 0.2 0.2 IF=40mA VF=20.6~25V 1/1 P.5
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1972), as a negotiation of the home and outside linguistic influences (Caldas 2006), as an enhancement of a marketable skill (Zhang 2008), as a realization of parental commitment to child’s socio-psychological wellbeing (Harding-Esch and Riley 2003;
Nei tre piani della galleria sfilano i migliori pittori cinesi, dall’enigmatico Zhang Xiaogang a Feng Zhengjie, fino a Zhang Hongtu e Wang Guangyi.
Based in the Central district of Hong Kong, it prides itself on its multicultural perspective and has consistently held high-profile exhibitions involving established and emerging international artists such as Callum Innes, Laurent Grasso, Zhang Huan, and Yuan Yuan.
they cover art world happenings and events around the world After this opportunity to do volunteer, I deeply appreciate the exhibition is complex and exciting, no matter what needs to be careful, but also let me see a lot of open-minded works, enrich my knowledge base.L.KX D 131 6 January 2017 MOTO INCOMPLETE SAVE THAT MOTO TORINO OBSERVATION MOTORCYCLE MOTO GUZZI DINGO photo by ruichen zhang Dingo Turismo (50-3 Marce en 50-3V)[bewerken] De Dingo Turismo verscheen in 1963.
CS5740 P3 Question Answering Report Pengcheng Zhang pz84@ 1 Jiangjie Man jm2559@ Introduction In this report, we describe how our QuestionAnswering system was implemented and compared its performance with the baseline system we built in part I.
癌, 非小细胞肺；受体, 表皮生长因子；突变；维吾尔族；非小细胞肺癌；棘皮动物微管样蛋白 4-间变淋巴 瘤激酶；生存分析 中图分类号：R734.2 文献标志码： A DOI： 10.11958/58911 EML4-ALK and EGFR mutation status and survival analysis in Uygur with stage Ⅳ NSCLC WANG Qiang1， ZHANG Qiao1， CAO Yanzhen2， TAO Jie1， SHAN Li1△ 1 Department of Medical Oncology, 2 Department of Pathology, Tumor Hospital Affiliated to Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830011, China △ Corresponding Author Abstract：Objective E-mail： firstname.lastname@example.org To investigate the relationship between the echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4- anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) and epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status and overall survival (OS) in Uygur patients with stage Ⅳ non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who did not accept tyrosine kinase inhibitor treat⁃ ment.
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08/05/2017 DESCRIZIONE Tecniche Grafiche Speciali Biennio pittura Zhang Jinling SOS-SFRATTO Aiutiamo Pino Boresta Pieno di impatto visivo di manifesti lezione interessante Un corso diverso in modo che io possa imparare il layout di più angolazioni e applicazione pratica.
DESCRIZIONE UN LIBRO D'ARTISTA 08/05/2017 Tecniche Grafiche Speciali Biennio pittura Zhang Jinling License Photo Studio，New York 1934, printed ca.