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International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Sept. 2013.
ISSN: 22311963

Essien Aniefiok1, I.E. Igweonu1, C. V. Eguzo1, B.J Robert2

Department of Electrical Electronics Engg., Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic Unwana
Faculty of Engineering & Environment, Northumbria University, UK

Smart grid concept is solidly based on the use of intelligent electronic devices and automated technologies on
the power system. This work understudies the current Nigerian power network plan and formulates a model for
integrating smart grid technology into the power system for optimized performance. The envisioned smart grid
must be resilient and posses a high level of dynamic performance. It should also be able to accommodate all
generation types especially the renewable energy sources.

KEYWORDS: power network, intelligent, smart grid, digital technology, economics, energy, security.

A smart grid is a computerized electrical grid that combines the technologies of computers, sensors
and other automated systems for fault detection and resolution. It should be able to gather, analyze
and respond to information, such as behavior of loads and generators at buses and even the behavior
of the entire grid to improve the efficiency, reliability, flexibility, security, economics and
sustainability of the electric grid. The E.U. through the European Technology Platform Smart grid
[ETF Smart grid] defines the smart grid as an electrical network that can intelligently integrate the
action of all users to it generators and consumers in order to efficiently deliver sustainable, economic
and secure electricity supply [7].
In U.S., through the Department of Energy (DOE) Smart grid is defined as a grid that will
incorporate digital technology to improve reliability, security and efficiency of the electric system
through information exchange, distributed generation and storage resources, which will result in a
‘’fully automated power delivery network’’[7]. The work as presented in this paper studies the
already existing Nigerian power network, compares it with that of developed nations like Europe and
America, then extracts a model that will be peculiar to the Nigerian scenario especially in the area of
renewable energy sources.

The traditional electricity grid as shown in fig 1.0 though rated fairly reliable in some parts of the
world and not very reliable in some parts and is currently facing some global challenges. The over
dependence of today’s electrical system on resources that seem to tend to zero in the midst of an ever
increasing demand for electricity is a major challenge. The uni-directional power flow nature of the
traditional grid has made it impossible for a decentralized generation. Energy from even more
efficient and environmental friendly sources are not easily integrated to the present grid design. The
Nigerian energy statistics by Energy Commission of Nigeria as shown in Table 1 indicates that major
sources; thermal, hydro and some other integrated sources (NIPP) which are mainly gas powered
depend on a centralized energy design. Hence the Nigerian traditional grid is characterized by
centralized power generation, unidirectional power flow and operational guide based on historical


Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 1760-1768

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Sept. 2013.
ISSN: 22311963
experience. The envisioned smart grid technology for Nigerian power system will be a total review of
the present technology and integration of environmental friendly options amongst other approaches to
achieve what will be seen as the future grid.

Fig. 1.0 Concept of traditional grid network
Table 1: Electricity Production, Consumption and Capacity


- Total
- Solids
- Solids
- Liquids
- Gases
- Nuclear
- Hydro
- Other






growth rate

Energy consumption**
15,948 85,328 126,967 102,360 157,511 111,582 1.50


6.87 20.20




22 -4.02

59.35 174.38 298.91 332.93 15.15

14,793 81,247 119,859 84,887 140,932 99,762 2.92
21.09 481.97 1856.23 10828.2 3188.30 873.78 -15.32
0.00 0.00
0.00 928.1 3237.8 4950.0 6441.6 13070.2 10590.9 10.74






Energy production
- Total
84,063 32,299 145,746 153,708 254,873 278,907 13.58
- Solids***
83,135 29,061 140,796 147,266 241,803 268,316 13.70
- Liquids
- Gases
- Nuclear
0.00 0.00
0.00 - Hydro (GWh)
928.1 3237.8 4950.0 6441.6 13070.2 10590.9 10.74
- Other renewables 0.00 0.00
0.00 Net import
(Import - Export)
- Total
Source: [http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/CNPP2011_CD/count]
* Latest available data ** Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import - Export)
of secondary energy. *** Solid fuels include coal, lignite and fuel wood.


Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 1760-1768

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Sept. 2013.
ISSN: 22311963
The envisioned smart grid will be a multi-directional paradigm Characterized by;
 Distributed Generation including renewable energy sources and storage options
 Multi-directional power flow
 Operation based on real time data
Europe and America have demonstrated a good understanding of their power network performance
and in response to present need and future demand developed platforms for implementing smart grid
technology. The approach taken by these countries can be mirrored in the current power plan of our
country Nigeria.
In Europe, besides the issues of security and quality of electricity supply, environmental sustainability
issues have been a major driving force for a new power system technology. The new power system
technology enables Europe achieve the vision of ending her dependence on fossil fuels by 2050 with
reference to the 1990 level. The new power system will intelligently integrate the actions of all users
connected to it – generators, consumers and those who do both so as to efficiently deliver sustainable,
economic and secure electricity supplies.
The European smart grid is envisaged to be;
 Flexible: Fulfilling customer’s needs and also responding to the changes challenges ahead.
 Accessible; Granting connection access to all network users, particularly for renewable power
sources and high efficiency local generation with zero or low carbon emissions.
 Reliable: Assuring and improving security and quality of supply, consistent with the demands
of the digital age with resilience to hazards and uncertainties.
 Economic: Providing best value through innovation, efficient energy management and “level
playing field” competition and regulation.
In comparison to the European design, there are seven principal characteristics that define the U.S
smart grid; The U.S engineers expects their smart grid to:
 Enable active participation by consumers
 Accommodate all generation and storage options
 Enable new products, services and markets
 Provide improved power quality for the 21st century digital economy
 Optimize asset utilization for grid efficiency
 Anticipate and respond to system disturbances (self healing)
 Operate resiliently against attack and natural disasters



The levels of energy utilization in an economy, coupled with the efficiency of conversion of energy
resources to useful energy, are directly indicative of the level of development of the economy. In
order to ensure optimal, adequate, reliable and secure supply of energy to, and its efficient utilization
in the country, it is essential to put in place a coordinated, coherent and comprehensive energy policy.
The policy will serve as a blue print for the sustainable development, supply and utilization of energy
resources within the economy. [1].
Although in Nigeria, the electricity network is known for its unreliability and vulnerability, it also
presents a challenge and opportunity for deployment of smart grid technology with the most effective
performance and functionality as envisaged in figure 2.0. In selecting the objective of this smart grid
system, a foremost approach will be an integral understanding of the present power network structure,
its performance and vulnerabilities.
The proposed smart grid System should be;
 Transactive with consumers and the market forces
 Accessible to all generation and storage options
 Efficient in utilization and overall grid operation
 Self healing – anticipate and respond to system disturbances in an automated manner
 Resilient - withstand attack and natural disasters; heavy rains, flooding, vandalism etc.
Areas of First Consideration
In the present grid network setup, a total replacement of power equipment with intelligent power
equipment will not be possible without grounding the whole country for a long period of time.


Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 1760-1768

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Sept. 2013.
ISSN: 22311963
Therefore it is important to start implementing smart technologies from areas with low interruption
factor while tending toward a complete gradual overhaul. These low interruption areas include;
1. Data Acquisition
Smart Metering: This two way smart device will be responsible for generating consumer end energy
data. This data will form the decision base for supply, fault report and other diagnosis for optimum
power delivery amongst other capabilities [2]. Beyond consumer data acquisition, Infrastructures like
sub-stations, transformers, high-voltage circuit breakers, transmission lines, reactors etc. should be
incorporated with wireless sensors and cameras that can be remotely monitored and controlled for
information report on system disruptions to control centers. The sensors allow remote detection of
medium- and low-voltage power transformer hotspots, through an infrared camera, to identify an
emerging malfunction [3]. They could also be used to prevent vandalism.
2. Distributed Generation (DG)
It is important to integrate renewable and other environmental friendly sources at distribution and
transmission level of the power network. There are many distributed generation technologies that can
be harnessed at commercial level in Nigeria (see table 1). These include; solar energy, biomass and
wind energy. These have to be introduced into existing transmission and distribution networks, which
were not initially designed to incorporate these kinds of generation technology in the scale that is
required today. Distributed generation can have a material impact on local grids, causing reversal of
power flows and variation of local grid voltages and other technical parameters necessary for secure
operation. [2].
3. Information Communication Technology.
Beyond data acquisition and integration of DG, coherent coordination of the whole system
performance can be optimized by careful application of communication technology. The area of focus
for ICT should include security, forecasting (i.e. power forecasting and environmental forecasting)
and other important measure of control. According to EU smart design, Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) and business process integration will be valuable tools in the real
time management of the value chain across suppliers, active networks, meters, customers and
corporate systems [2].

Fig 2.0. Conceptual Model of the Nigerian Smart Grid.



4.1. Hydro Energy
The country is reasonably endowed with large rivers and some few natural falls. Small rivers and
streams also exist within the present split of the country into eleven river basin authorities [11]. A
study has revealed that Nigeria possesses potential renewable source of energy along her numerous
river systems, A total of 70 micro dams, 126 mini dams, 86 small sites have been identified [11]. The


Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 1760-1768

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Sept. 2013.
ISSN: 22311963
total technically exploitable power potential based on country’s river system is conservatively
estimated to about 11,000MW of which only 19% is currently being tapped or developed [11]. These
rivers, waterfalls and streams with high potentials for hydro power, if properly harnessed will lead to
decentralized use and provide the most affordable and accessible option to off-grid electricity services
especially to the rural communities [11].
4.2. Solar Energy
Nigeria which is located between longitude 30 and 140 east of Greenwich and latitude 40 and 140 north
of equator (a high sunshine belt) has a total land area of 923,768km2 [10]. This endows her with
enormous solar energy potentials. Solar radiation is fairly well distributed with average solar radiation
of about 19.8MjM-2 day-1 and average sunshine hours of 6hrs per day [11]. If solar collectors modules
were used to cover 1% of Nigeria’s land area, solar energy of about 1850 x 10 3GWh per year will be
generated [11]. This is over one hundred times the current grid electricity supply level in the country
4.3. Wind Energy
Wind energy is available at annual average speed of about 2.0m/s at the coastal region and 4.0m/s at
the far northern region of the country [11]. With this, small scale wind turbines could be installed to
help boost energy generation in the country.
4.4. Biomass
Presently, Nigeria can potentially produce about 6.8 Million m3 of biogas everyday – from animal
waste only [11]. Sawdust, wood waste and other important biomass resources all abound in Nigeria
and if properly harnessed, can add significantly to the Nation’s energy capacity.

Low Generating Capacity: Nigeria got her first electric power in 1894 just 20 years after Washington
DC got theirs. However, 118 year later, Nigeria is still largely a dark country [9] with only about 40%
of her citizens connected to the national grid [10][11]. The country’s present overdependence on gas
fired generation plants has resulted in supply disruptions in times of gas shortages which are very
common occurrences [12]. This, coupled with the high vulnerability of our electricity network system
has so far contributed to the unreliability of the overall system.
Commercial electricity generation in Nigeria currently comes from 7 power stations and various
independent power projects around the country. Before the current transformation in the power sector,
the national grid available electricity generating capacity was about 3,920MW which translates to
28.57 watts per capita power capacity. This is grossly inadequate even for domestic consumption [11].
For Nigeria to meet up its energy needs, it requires per capita power capacity of 1000watts [11] or
power generating/handling capacity of 170,000MW.
2. Individual Perception: Due to the unreliable nature of power supply, individuals developed a poor
power usage methodology. This method tends towards wasting energy instead of making proper use
of it. For instance most persons don’t use energy saving bulbs and rarely switch off portions of energy
that are not in use. The inclusion of smart metering will curtail these wastages because energy usage
will become more interactive and cost effective, making people purchase what they really need.
3. Government Approach: In the present dispensation of governance, a notable attention has been
given to the power sector. Despite this, implementation strategy has not been very impressive in the
area of DG. The need for alternative power generation options is therefore imperative. Besides the
energy generation issues, there is an urgent need for energy distribution facilities, and adequate
metering system. [10].



The Nigerian smart grid among other things is expected to present these features:
 Enable active participation by consumers
 Accommodate all generation and storage options
 Enable new products, services and markets


Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 1760-1768

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Sept. 2013.
ISSN: 22311963
 Provide improved power quality
 Anticipate and respond to system disturbances (self-heals)
 Operate resiliently against attack and natural disaster.
Firstly, it will enable active participation by consumers in the nation’s electricity markets will bring
significant benefits to both the grid and the environment. With the unidirectional signal flow of the
traditional grid, (all at operational time scales), generation levels have always been adjusted to meet
up with demand, In the 1980s, the electric power research institute (EPRI) introduced demand side
management (DSM) to maintain a balance between supply and demand. In this concept the load is
made flexible in response to supply instead of only adjusting generation levels at the supply side.
DSM which is a component of smart grid is a global term that refers to a variety of activities such as
load management, energy efficiency, energy savings, etc [4]. With smart grid, there will be reduction
of consumer’s ill efficient load management programs which are collectively referred to as demand
response (DR). DR involves changes in electric power usage by end users from their normal
consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive
payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of peak loads or when system reliability is
at risk [4]. Thus, with DR, smart grid will have the means of reducing demand during the high cost
peak usage periods. With communication and metering technologies, smart devices in homes and
business premises would be informed on when energy demand is high and also give utility companies
the ability to reduce consumption by communicating to devices directly in order to prevent system
Through real time value- enhancing dynamic pricing, consumers will be motivated to practice peak
curtailment or peak leveling. Prices of electricity will be increased during high demand periods, and
decreased during low demand periods. It is obvious that consumers will tend to consume less during
high demand periods if they are aware of the high price premium for using electricity at peak periods.
This will eliminate the cost of adding reserve generators, cut wear and tear and extend the life of
equipment plus the long term environmental benefits.
Secondly, it will accommodate all generation and storage options, considering the prospects of energy
in Nigeria. Nigeria has the potential to generate more than enough for her 170 million citizens. The
problem has always been the integration of all these resources to the national grid. The deployment of
smart grid in Nigeria is expected to accommodate distributed generation (DG). It must grant
connection access to all the renewable energy sources (RES) and storage options of different
locations, sizes and voltage levels. The integration of small scale, localized, or on site power
generations (from environmentally friendly sources like hydro turbines, photo-voltaic, wind, biogas,
etc) from residential and commercial customers to the grid would be part of the design for the
Nigerian smart grid.
There will also be deployment and integration of advanced electricity storage systems and peak –
shaving technologies like the PHEVs, advanced battery, fuel cells, etc. including provisions for
consumers to save and sell energy back to the grid. The traditional large central power plants
presently of hydro and gas turbines will continue to play a major role in the actualization of the
Nigeria smart grid deployment. Above all, the Nigerian smart grid is expected to be a giant grid
consisting of hundreds of rural or micro grid operating on a ‘plug and play’ basis.
Thirdly, it will enable the emergence of new products, services and markets. The deployment of smart
grid will provide a new set of tools for consumers to manage their usage and total energy bills. The
digital meters that will be mounted at demand sides will record energy usage by consumers at realtime. It will provide real-time automated interface between generators and loads therefore enabling
real time pricing. The use of robust bi-directional communication systems will introduce feedback
between generators and loads, suppliers and consumers, and distributed computing devices within the
network. Smart grid will open up the potential for entirely new services (or improve on the existing
ones) such as fire alarms, phone systems, etc. and new markets in areas of systems components
related to PHEVs, advanced storage systems, communication system, power flow control systems,
Fourthly, it will provide improved power quality. The Nigerian electric grid is characterized by so
many unreliability issues ranging from brownouts to rolling blackouts and uncontrolled blackouts. In
fact, the problem in our energy sector is not only how little we generate but also the power quality at


Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 1760-1768

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Sept. 2013.
ISSN: 22311963
which the little generated is being delivered to the consumers. As part of the vision for smart grid
[13], a number of network operators have proposed that the smart grid should include:
 Network monitoring to improve reliability
 Equipment monitoring to improve maintenance. ( This may include hot maintenance)
 Power monitoring to improve real and reactive power in the system.
To achieve this, monitoring system infrastructure (MSI) would be used to gather information vis a vis
the operating of the network, state of equipment and quality of product. With the smart grid being able
to maintain correct local balance between production and consumption, overvoltage and undervoltages would be mitigated and hence customers can then enjoy improved voltage quality [3]. Smart
grid will be able to heal itself – expects and instantly responds to system problems in order to mitigate
or avoid power outages and improve power quality [8]. Moreover, micro-grids with islanding
capability can mitigate voltage dips by going very quickly from grid – connected operation to
islanding operation. Also, the presence of generator units close to the loads will allow the use of these
units in maintaining the voltage during times of fault or disturbance in the grid.
Fifthly, it will optimize asset utilization and enhance grid efficiency. It has been mentioned that the
smart grid will have the ability to support time of use energy pricing where price of energy during
high demand periods will be relatively higher than that during low demand periods. Consumers will
therefore curtail their consumption especially during peak periods, and this is expected to eliminate
the cost of adding reserve generators. The proposed smart grid will have ubiquitous sensors for
network monitoring, equipment monitoring and power quality monitoring. Through these monitoring,
power quality will be improved, system losses will be reduced and the overall system efficiency will
be enhanced.
Sixthly, it will anticipate and respond to system disturbances (self-heals). In the context of the smart
grid, “self- healing” refers to the ability of the smart grid to identify problematic elements of an
electrical system, isolate and restore with little or no manual intervention, so as to minimize
interruptions of service [5]. Self-healing is in essence, the smart grid’s immune system [5]. If our grid
is made smarter (by making stronger its immune system), it will be able to perform continuous, online
self – assessment to detect existing or emerging problems, predict future potential problems, and
initiate immediate corrective responses.
The relays, circuit breakers and other protection devices usually form the self – healing concept of the
traditional grid but in the smart grid, this is taken to the next level with automation through intelligent
electrical devices technology. Ubiquitous sensors and analytic programmers will monitor and detect
patterns that are precursors to faults, providing the ability to correct these conditions before
disturbance actually occur [5].
With smart grid, communications with local and remote devices will help analyze faults; low voltage,
poor power quality, overloads and other undesirable system conditions and appropriate control actions
will be taken automatically based on these analyses [6]. A self-healing grid will leverage improved
grid reliability, security, safety, power quality and environmental safety [5].
Finally, the smart grid will operate resiliently against attack and natural disasters. The smart grid will
incorporate a system – wide solution that reduces physical and cyber vulnerabilities and enables a
rapid recovery from disruptions [6]. Since the smart grid is a network of many micro grids, event
impact will be limited to the smallest load area possible and its self-healing features will also make it
less vulnerable to natural disasters than today’s grid. The security protocols of the smart grid will
contain elements of deterrence, detection, and mitigation to minimize impact on the grid [6]. These
seven interdependent features should define the Nigerian smart grid and are also relevant in other
power grids in the continent



The traditional centralized power grid globally can no longer keep pace with the ever increasing
demand for electrical energy. A decentralized, multi directional power system flow network made
smarter through the incorporation of computerized and automated systems to gather, analyze and
respond to information pertaining to the operation of the network is being deployed globally. The
deployment of smart grid technologies in Nigeria remains the ‘way forward’ to bring Nigeria out of
the dark where it has remained for 118 years. The Nigerian smart grid must be transactive, accessible,


Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 1760-1768

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Sept. 2013.
ISSN: 22311963
efficient, reliable, self-healing and resilient. As obtained from the generating statistics of table 1 and
the model of figure 2, there is an imperative integration of smart grid technologies into to the power
flow for optimum power performance.

[1]. Federal Republic of Nigeria. National Energy Policy. Energy Commission of Nigeria. April 2003.
[2]. European Commission. European Technology Platform Smart Grids, Luxembourg ISBN 92-79-01414-5.
2006. http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/rtdinfo/index_en.html
[3]. E. I. Igweonu, Robert Ben Joshua, Eguzo Chimezie V, and Oluwe Musbau Olajide. Plotting a Path through
High Voltage Power System Security using ICT; International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research
Volume 3, Issue 8, ISSN 2229-5518. August, 2012 http://www.ijser.org
[4]. Murthy, V.S.K Vedanta, P., Khaparde, S.A., & Shereef, R.M. Review of Demand response Under Smart
Grid Paradigm. IEE PES innovative Smart Grid Technology – India, 2011.
[5]. Hamilton, B.A., Renz, B., Miller, J., & Harmon, J. Anticipates and Responds to System Disturbances (SelfHeals). U.S Department of Energy (DOE) – National Energy Technology Laboratory, Sept 2010. DOE/NETL –
[6] U.S Department of Energy (DOE). The modern Grid Strategy, A Vision for the smart Grid. National Energy
Technology Laboratory, June 2009.
[7]. Zhang, Z. Smart Grid in America and Europe (Part 1) Similar desires, different approaches. Public Utilities
Fortnightly – January, 2011.
[8]. Tsado., J., Imoru, O., & Segun, O.D. Power System Stability Enhancement through smart Grid
Technologies with DRS. International Journal of Engineering and Technology Vol 2. No. 4 April, 2012
[9]. Okpa, E. E. A Smart Grid For Nigeria’s Energy Woes? The African Executive, October, 2009.
[10]. Sambo, A. S. Strategic Development in Renewable Energy in Nigeria. International Association for
Energy Economics. Third Quarter, 15 – 19. 2009.
[11]. Akpu, I. V Renewable Energy Potentials in Nigeria. International Association for Impact Assesment. June
[12]. Okanlawon, L. Nigeria, Energy Poverty and Renewable Energy. Retrieved from
[13]. Bollen, M. H.J., Zhong, J., Zavoda,F., Meyer, J., McEachern, A., & Lopez, F. Power quality aspects of
smart grids. International Conference on renewable energies and power quality (ICREPQ’10) Granda Spain.
March, 2010.

Essien Aniefiok, Studied HND Power and Machines in Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic
07, Currently a PGD Electrical Electronic student of Michael Okapra University of
Agriculture. He works as technologist in the centre of Excellence (power/machine
lab)Akanu Ibiam federal polytechnic, Unwana.

C. V Eguzo. Born 84 at Abia State Nigeria. Studied HND Electronics in Akanu Ibiam
Federal Polytechnic 07, PGD electrical 2013 from Anambra State University Uli. A
member of IEEE. Currently working in electronics laboratory of Akanu Ibiam Federal
Polytechnic and a support staff of the ICT unit in the same institution. His current research
interest is in Embedded Systems.

B. J Robert. Born 1977 at Abia State Nigeria. Studied HND Power Engineering (2003) at
Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, PGD Electrical Electronics and Computer Engineering
(2009) in Nnamdi Azikiwe Univeristy Awka. Currently studying power Engineering (Msc.)
at Northumbria University UK. Also Works with Power engineering laboratory at Akanu
Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana.


Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 1760-1768

International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Sept. 2013.
ISSN: 22311963
I.E. Igweonu studied Msc Power and Machines Engineering (2007) at Nnamdi Azikiwe
University Awka, Nigeria. Currently a PhD Student at Michael Okpara University Umudike.
He is a Lecturer in Electrical Electronics Department of Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic,
Unwana. His current research interest is in Power machines.


Vol. 6, Issue 4, pp. 1760-1768

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