PDF Archive

Easily share your PDF documents with your contacts, on the Web and Social Networks.

Share a file Manage my documents Convert Recover PDF Search Help Contact



MDSO804D Fundamentals of Petroleum Refiining .pdf



Original filename: MDSO804D-Fundamentals_of_Petroleum_Refiining.pdf
Title: MDSO804D-Fundamentals of Petroleum Refiining
Author: MAPLE

This PDF 1.6 document has been generated by CCE-UPES / PlotSoft PDFill 10.0, and has been sent on pdf-archive.com on 24/01/2015 at 08:58, from IP address 122.173.x.x. The current document download page has been viewed 1216 times.
File size: 2.4 MB (240 pages).
Privacy: public file




Download original PDF file









Document preview


(c

)C

CE

-U

PE

S

UNIT 20: Case Study

S

Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining

Course Design

Chairman
Dr Parag Diwan
Members
Dr Anirban Sengupta
Dean

Dr Satya Sheel
VP – Academic Affairs

Prof I M Mishra
Dean – IIT Roorkee

SLM Development Team
Wg Cdr P K Gupta
Dr Joji Rao
Dr Neeraj Anand

Mr Kapil Mehra
Manager – Material

Mr A N Sinha
Sr Manager – Printing

)C

Author

Mr M K Goel
Management Consultant

CE

Dr K K Pandey

Print Production

Dr Ashish Bhardwaj
CIO

-U

Dr Shrihari
Dean

PE

Advisory Council

Gurpreet Kaur

All rights reserved. No parts of this work may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means,
without permission in writing from Hydrocarbon Education Research & Society.

(c

Course Code: MDSO-804D

Course Name: Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining
Version: July 2013

© MPower Applied Learning Enterprise

S

UNIT 20: Case Study

Unit 1

Introduction to Oil Refinery ................................ ................................ ......................... 3

Unit 2

Growth and Development of Refinery Industry in India................................ ........... 13

Unit 3

Chemistry of Petroleum................................ ................................ .............................. 21

Unit 4

Characteristics of Crude Oil ................................ ................................ ....................... 27

Unit 5

Case Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 39

Unit 6

Important Test on Petroleum Products................................ ................................ ...... 43

Unit 7

Bureau of Mines Correlation Index................................ ................................ ............ 53

Unit 8

-U

Block-I

PE

Contents

Properties of Petroleum Products................................ ................................ ............... 63

Unit 9

Crude Distillation ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 79

Unit 10

Case Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 89

CE

Block-II

Block-III

Hydrogen Production and Management................................ ................................ ..... 95

Unit 12

Fluidised Catalytic Cracking................................ ................................ .................... 107

Unit 13

Offsite Facilities and its Management ................................ ................................ ..... 117

)C

Unit 11

Unit 14

Future Refining Scenario................................ ................................ .......................... 125

Unit 15

Case Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 129

Block-IV

Advances in Petroleum Refining ................................ ................................ .............. 135

Unit 17

Hydrocarbon Loss Minimisation and Energy Conversation................................ .... 141

(c

Unit 16

Unit 18

Gross Refining Margin................................ ................................ .............................. 147

Unit 19

Oil Accounting Excise and Custom on Petroleum Products ................................ .... 153

Unit 20

Case Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 159

Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining

S

Block-V

Environment, Health and Safety Guidelines ................................ ........................... 163

Unit 22

Fundamentals of ULSF Production................................ ................................ .......... 175

Unit 23

IT Applications in Hydrocarbon Industry ................................ ................................ 187

Unit 24

Petroleum Refining: Terminology................................ ................................ ............. 211

Unit 25

Case Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 225

PE

Unit 21

(c

)C

CE

-U

Glossary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 231

S

UNIT 1: Introduction to Oil Refinery

Notes

___________________

PE

___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________

___________________
___________________
___________________

-U

___________________

(c

)C

CE

BLOCK-I

___________________

Notes

UNIT 3: CHEMISTRY OF PETROLEUM

UNIT
2: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
___________________
REFINERY INDUSTRY IN INDIA
___________________

Introduction


___________________
Indian Refining Industry
___________________

OF



Introduction



Chemistry of Petroleum



Crude Assay

UNIT 4: CHARACTERISTICS OF CRUDE OIL


Introduction



Crude Oil Characteristics and their Significance

UNIT 5: CASE STUDY

(c

)C

CE

-U

___________________
___________________

PE

UNIT
1: INTRODUCTION TO OIL REFINERY
___________________

Introduction
___________________

Operation
___________________

Flow Diagram of Typical Refinery
___________________

S

Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining

Detailed Contents

S

UNIT 1: Introduction to Oil Refinery

Notes
Activity
Activity

List___________________
down various products
D
produced by oil refineries.
___________________

PE

Introduction to Oil Refinery

___________________

Objectives

___________________

After completion of this unit, the students will be aware of the following
topics:

___________________



Operation



Major products



Flow diagram of typical refinery

___________________
___________________
___________________

-U

Introduction

)C

CE

An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant
where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products
such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base,
heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Oil refineries
are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive
piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between
large chemical processing units. In many ways, oil refineries use
much of the technology of, and can be thought of, as types of
chemical plants. The crude oil feedstock has typically been
processed by an oil production plant. There is usually an oil depot
(tank farm) at or near an oil refinery for the storage of incoming
crude oil feedstock as well as bulk liquid products.

Operation

Raw or unprocessed crude oil is not generally useful in industrial
applications, although "light, sweet" (low viscosity, low sulfur)
crude oil has been used directly as a burner fuel to produce steam
for the propulsion of sea-going vessels. The lighter elements,
however, form explosive vapours in the fuel tanks and are
therefore hazardous, especially in warships. Instead, the hundreds
of different hydrocarbon molecules in crude oil are separated in a
refinery into components which can be used as fuels, lubricants,
and as feedstocks in petrochemical processes that manufacture
such products as plastics, detergents, solvents, elastomers and
fibres such as nylon and polyesters.

(c

___________________

___________________

Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining

___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________

S

___________________

PE

___________________

Petroleum fossil fuels are burned in internal combustion engines to
provide power for ships, automobiles, aircraft engines, lawn
mowers, chainsaws, and other machines. Different boiling points
allow the hydrocarbons to be separated by distillation. Since the
lighter liquid products are in great demand for use in internal
combustion engines, a modern refinery will convert heavy
hydrocarbons and lighter gaseous elements into these higher value
products.
Oil can be used in a variety of ways because it contains
hydrocarbons of varying molecular masses, forms and lengths such
as paraffins, aromatics, naphthenes (or cycloalkanes), alkenes,
dienes, and alkynes. While the molecules in crude oil include
different atoms such as sulfur and nitrogen, the hydrocarbons are
the most common form of molecules, which are molecules of
varying lengths and complexity made of hydrogen and carbon
atoms, and a small number of oxygen atoms. The differences in the
structure of these molecules account for their varying physical and
chemical properties, and it is this variety that makes crude oil
useful in a broad range of applications.

-U

Notes

(c

)C

CE

Once separated and purified of any contaminants and impurities,
the fuel or lubricant can be sold without further processing.
Smaller molecules such as isobutane and propylene or butylenes
can be recombined to meet specific octane requirements by
processes such as alkylation, or less commonly, dimerization.
Octane grade of gasoline can also be improved by catalytic
reforming, which involves removing hydrogen from hydrocarbons
producing compounds with higher octane ratings such as
aromatics. Intermediate products such as gasoils can even be
reprocessed to break heavy, long-chained oil into a lighter shortchained one, by various forms of cracking such as fluid catalytic
cracking, thermal cracking, and hydrocracking. The final step in
gasoline production is the blending of fuels with different octane
ratings, vapour pressures, and other properties to meet product
specifications.
Oil refineries are large scale plants, processing about a hundred
thousand to several hundred thousand barrels of crude oil a day.
Because of the high capacity, many of the units operate
continuously, as opposed to processing in batches, at steady state
or nearly steady state for months to years. The high capacity also

makes process optimization and advanced process control very
desirable.

S

UNIT 1: Introduction to Oil Refinery

Notes

___________________

Major Products



Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)



Gasoline (also known as petrol)



Naphtha



Kerosene and related jet aircraft fuels



Diesel fuel



Fuel oils



Lubricating oils



Paraffin wax



Asphalt and tar



Petroleum coke



Sulfur

___________________

PE

Petroleum products are usually grouped into three categories: light
distillates (LPG, gasoline, and naphtha), middle distillates
(kerosene, diesel), heavy distillates and residuum (heavy fuel oil,
lubricating oils, wax, and asphalt). This classification is based on
the way crude oil is distilled and separated into fractions (called
distillates and residuum) as in the above drawing.

___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________

CE

-U

___________________

)C

Oil refineries also produce various intermediate products such as
hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, reformate and pyrolysis gasoline.
These are not usually transported but instead are blended or
processed further on-site. Chemical plants are thus often adjacent
to oil refineries. For example, light hydrocarbons are steamcracked in an ethylene plant, and the produced ethylene is
polymerized to produce polyethene.

Common Process Units Found in a Refinery
Desalter unit washes out salt from the crude oil before it
enters the atmospheric distillation unit.



Atmospheric distillation unit distills crude oil into fractions.
See Continuous distillation.



Vacuum distillation unit further distills residual bottoms after
atmospheric distillation.

(c



___________________


Related documents


crude oil tensions by turkey plus commodity trading tips
naphtha price
petroleum coke market
jordan investment opportunity 22 3 2017 v1
aarkstore global refining capital expenditures
ejectors in flare gas recovery systems


Related keywords