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Biomaterials for Stem Cell Therapy .pdf



Original filename: Biomaterials for Stem Cell Therapy.pdf
Title: Biomaterials for Stem Cell Therapy : State of Art and Vision for the Future
Author: De Bartolo, Loredana(Editor)

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willbook
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Editors
About the About
EditorstheAbout
the Editors
De
isBartolo
a researcher
at theon
Institute
Membrane
Technology
of
Loredana Loredana
De Bartolo
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researcher
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Technology
of
Loredana
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at theon
Institute
on Membrane
Technology
of
theResearch
National
Research
Council
of
Italy
(ITM-CNR)
in
charge
of
the
research
area
the National
Council
of
Italy
(ITM-CNR)
in
charge
of
the
research
area
the National Research Council of Italy (ITM-CNR) in charge of the research area
“Membranes
inOrgans
Artificial
Organs
and
Biotechnology”
for the Molecular
Design Design
“Membranes
in Artificial
and
Biotechnology”
for the
Molecular
Design
“Membranes
in
Artificial
Organs
and
Biotechnology”
for the Molecular
Department
of
CNR.
She
has
followed
a
biological,
technological
and
material
Department
of CNR.
She
has
followed
a
biological,
technological
and
material
Department of CNR. She has followed a biological, technological and material
science education
in in
Italy
and
Germany.
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research
are in the are in the
science education
inscience
Italy and
Germany.
Her
research
are in the
education
in in
Italy
and
in Germany.
Herexperiences
research
experiences
of fields
bioartificial
membrane
systems
including
membrane
bioreactors
fields of fields
bioartificial
membrane
systems
including
membrane
bioreactors
of bioartificial membrane systems including membrane bioreactors
toapplied
tissue engineering
and regenerative
medicine,
with
special
focus
on focus on
applied toapplied
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regenerative
medicine,
with special
focus
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toand
tissue
engineering
and regenerative
medicine,
with
special
the development
of liver, neuronal,
bonesystem.
and bone
skin
system.
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main Her
distinction
the development
of the
liver,
neuronal,
bone
and neuronal,
skin
Her
main
distinction
development
of liver,
and
skin
system.
main distinction
and contribution
in the
field
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specific
about
cellstem cell
and contribution
in
thecontribution
field
is her
knowledge
about knowledge
stem
cell stem
and
inspecific
the
field
is her knowledge
specific
about
biomembrane
and
biomaterial
interactions.
She
is
a
founding
member
of
the
biomembrane
and biomaterial
interactions.
She
is
a
founding
member
of
the
biomembrane and biomaterial interactions. She is a founding member
of the
and
World
Federation
Regenerative
Medicine
and
of
the
World
European European
and World
Federation
Regenerative
Medicine
and
of
the
World
European and World Federation Regenerative Medicine and of the World
Virtual– Institute
Preventive
and Regenerative
Medicine.Medicine.
Virtual Institute
Preventive
and Regenerative
Medicine.
Virtual–Institute
– Preventive
and Regenerative

K16738

an informa business
www.taylorandfrancisgroup.com

6000 Broken Sound Parkway, NW
Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487
711 Third Avenue
New York, NY 10017
2 Park Square, Milton Park
Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN, UK

Editors
Loredana De Bartolo
Augustinus Bader
Editors
Loredana De Bartolo
Augustinus Bader
Editors
Loredana De Bartolo
Augustinus Bader

Augustinus
Bader isand
director
professor
forStem
Applied
Cell
Biology
Augustinus
Bader is
director
professor
for
Applied
Cell
Biology
and
Augustinus
Bader
isand
director
and professor
forStem
Applied
Stem
Celland
Biology and
Cell Technology
at
the
University
of
Leipzig
and
honorary
professor
of
Stem of Stem
Cell Technology
at Cell
the University
of
Leipzig
and
honorary
professor
of
Stem
Technology at the University of Leipzig and honorary professor
Cell Technology
at the University,
Dongseo
University,
Busan, South-Korea.
Cell Technology
at Cell
the Dongseo
Busan, South-Korea.
He has
anHe has anHe has an
Technology
at the Dongseo
University,
Busan,
South-Korea.
international
medical
and
biotechnological
education
(Italy, Germany,
China
international
medical
and
biotechnological
education
(Italy, Germany,
China
international
medical
and
biotechnological
education
(Italy, Germany,
China
USA)
in
the
fields
of
experimental
surgery,
pharmacology
and
toxicology
and USA)and
in the
fields
of
experimental
surgery,
pharmacology
and
toxicology
and USA) in the fields of experimental surgery, pharmacology and toxicology
cellstem
biotechnology.
He developed
both
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concept
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and stemand
cell stem
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and
cell
Hethe
developed
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the of
concept
regeneration”
in the
late
nineties
that
stem
cellstem
activation
and
regeneration”
in the
late
nineties
that
sees nineties
stemsees
cell
activation
andcell activation
regeneration”
in the
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that
sees
and
microenvironmental
control
as
an
in
vivo
process
and
bedside
procedures
that
microenvironmental
control
as
an
in
vivo
process
and
bedside
procedures
that
microenvironmental control as an in vivo process and bedside procedures that
have meanwhile
been very
applied
very
successfully
for
skin, for
corneal,
have meanwhile
been
successfully
for
corneal,
bone,
have applied
meanwhile
been
applied
veryskin,
successfully
skin, bone,
corneal, bone,
cartilage,
tendon,
spinal
cord
and
airway
regeneration.
The
first
patients
cartilage, tendon,
spinal
cord
and
airway
regeneration.
The
first
patients
were
cartilage, tendon, spinal cord and airway regeneration. The firstwere
patients were
intreated
2002. The
platform
is
anfinding
ever
field
of users
treated in treated
2002. The
platform
is finding
anfinding
ever wider
fieldwider
of
in technology
2002.
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platform
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anusers
ever
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field of users
both in
but
also veterinary
medicine medicine
worldwide.
He
is nowHe
cofounder
both in human
buthuman
also
medicine
worldwide.
He is now
cofounder
bothveterinary
in
human
but also veterinary
worldwide.
is now cofounder
and of
president
of the
World
Federation
Preventive
& Regenerative
Medicine Medicine
and
and president
theand
World
Federation
Preventive
& Regenerative
Medicine
and
president
of the
World Federation
Preventive
& Regenerative
and
WorldPreventive
Institute
Preventive
&
Regenerative
Medicine.
the World the
Institute
&
Regenerative
Medicine.
the World Institute Preventive & Regenerative Medicine.

Biomaterials
Biomaterials
forforfor
Biomaterials
Stem
Cell
Therapy
Stem
Cell
Therapy
Stem
Cell
Therapy

Biomaterials for Stem Cell Therapy

fillscritical
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The
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and
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applications,
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and
Its
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of current
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thinking
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in
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and
thinking on
how toon
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the
context
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current
concepts
and
thinking on how to deal with them in the context of current concepts
and
technologies
by
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in-depth
focus
on
biomaterials.
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book
technologies
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focus
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the
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to stem cell
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by top researchers
inStem
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cells
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cells
of
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adultembryonic
origin
areand
top
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inStem
theboth
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cells
of both
adult
with
applications
ranging,
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not
limited
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regeneration,
discussed discussed
with applications
ranging,
but
not
limited
to,
nerve
regeneration,
discussed with applications ranging, but not limited to, nerve regeneration,
liver, pancreas,
skin,cartilage
trachea,
cartilage
bone
repair
and
cardiovascular
liver, pancreas,
skin,
trachea,
bone and
repair
and
cardiovascular
liver,
pancreas,
skin,and
trachea,
cartilage
and
bone
repair
and cardiovascular
therapy.
All
the
developments
in
the
field
reflecting
the
design
and
construction
therapy. All
the developments
in
the
field
reflecting
the
design
and
construction
therapy. All the developments in the field reflecting the design
and construction
of the
human
andbody
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anatomy
are
discussed
from a materials
of the human
body
and
itshuman
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from are
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and its are
principal
anatomy
discussed
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point of view.
point of view.
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Biomaterials for Stem Cell Therapy

Biomaterials for Stem Cell Therapy

Book the Book
About the About
Book theAbout

State
of and
Art
and
Vision
State
ofState
Art
Vision
of Art
and
Vision
for Future
the
Future
for the
for the
Future

EditorsEditors
Editors
Loredana
De Bartolo
Loredana
De
Bartolo
Loredana
De Bartolo
Augustinus
Augustinus
BaderBaderBader
Augustinus

A Science Publishers Book

BIOMATERIALS FOR STEM
CELL THERAPY
State of Art and Vision
for the Future

This page intentionally left blank

BIOMATERIALS FOR STEM
CELL THERAPY
State of Art and Vision
for the Future

Edited by
Loredana De Bartolo
Institute of Membrane Technology
National Research Council of Italy
University of Calabria
Rende (CS)
Italy

Augustinus Bader
Department of Cell Techniques and
Applied Stem Cell Biology
University of Leipzig
Leipzig
Germany

p,

A SCIENCE PUBLISHERS BOOK

CRC Press
Taylor & Francis Group
6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300
Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742
© 2013 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business
No claim to original U.S. Government works
Version Date: 20130321
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4665-7640-7 (eBook - PDF)
This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. While all reasonable
efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, neither the author[s] nor the publisher can
accept any legal responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publishers wish
to make clear that any views or opinions expressed in this book by individual editors, authors or contributors
are personal to them and do not necessarily reflect the views/opinions of the publishers. The information or
guidance contained in this book is intended for use by medical, scientific or health-care professionals and is
provided strictly as a supplement to the medical or other professional’s own judgement, their knowledge of
the patient’s medical history, relevant manufacturer’s instructions and the appropriate best practice guidelines. Because of the rapid advances in medical science, any information or advice on dosages, procedures
or diagnoses should be independently verified. The reader is strongly urged to consult the drug companies’
printed instructions, and their websites, before administering any of the drugs recommended in this book.
This book does not indicate whether a particular treatment is appropriate or suitable for a particular individual. Ultimately it is the sole responsibility of the medical professional to make his or her own professional
judgements, so as to advise and treat patients appropriately. The authors and publishers have also attempted
to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright
holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been
acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint.
Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented,
including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system,
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Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used
only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.
Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at
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Acknowledgements
The editors are grateful to the many distinguished scientists who
collaborated with them towards this book. We are especially obliged to those
who contributed with one or more chapters covering the several topics of
the book. We acknowledge the support of the World Federation and World
Institute Preventive and Regenerative Medicine.
We dedicate this book to the patients who have participated in the
clinical research and gratefully acknowledge their contribution in helping
generations of future patients.
Every long way begins with a little step (Mao).

This page intentionally left blank

Preface
Tissue regeneration has become a clinical reality in the treatment of some
defects and pathologies. Stem cells are the basis for regeneration and
biomaterials provide the biochemical, physical and mechanical cues to direct
the stem cell fate and to stimulate the self organization of tissues.
This book provides the state-of-the-art developments with a specific
focus on the interaction of stem cells with biomaterials for constructing and
regenerating tissues and organs integrating strategies from basic biology,
to materials for remodelling to production processes. Stem cells of both
embryonic and adult origin are described with applications ranging, but not
limited to, nerve regeneration, liver, pancreas, skin, trachea, cartilage and
bone repair and cardiovascular therapy. All the developments in the field
reflecting the design and construction of the human body and it´s principal
anatomy will be discussed from a materials point of view.
Stem cells, within the body, interact with extracellular matrix
molecules and between themselves as well as with other cell types. The
extracellular matrix is not only a mechanical support but also a complex
ligand system, which is used to run specific signalling pathways through
specific receptors. Matrix characteristics significantly determine the fate
of stem cells. Both chemical characteristics of substances surrounding
cells, and their physical characteristics such as hardness and elasticity
are critically important. Directing the controlled differentiation of stem
cells into a lineage-specific manner requires a controlled biophysical and
biochemical microenvironment and signals. Biomaterials may act as artificial
microenvironments and therefore, can deliver stem cell regulatory signals
in a precise and near-physiological fashion aimed to direct differentiation
of stem cells into various therapeutic lineages. Both synthetic and natural
biomaterials are reviewed with emphasis on how material-stem cell
interactions direct specific signalling pathways and ultimately modulate
the cell fate. Biomaterials may mimic extracellular matrix in vivo providing
not only the geometry and physico-chemical properties to maximize
the migration, adhesion and proliferation of cells but also the capability
to sequester and release biological signals essential for cell molecules.
Technological approaches such as bioreactors are considered for the

viii Biomaterials for Stem Cell Therapy: State of Art and Vision for the Future
expansion of stem cells to be implanted or for the growth of 3D tissues
prior to implantation. Bioreactors represent means to provide cells an
adequate environment to proliferate and differentiate as in vivo, physical
and mechanical stimuli for their functionality and an efficient mass transfer
of nutrients and metabolites. We hope that this book will be a valuable
tool for biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians as well as stem
cell biologists involved in basic research and applications of adult and
embryonic stem cells.
The once nascent field of regenerative medicine is now emerging
realistically and holds great promises for improving our scientific knowledge
and for the future of medicine due to the potential of significant advances
in the understanding of regenerative mechanism that could have a great
impact on patient care. Better understanding of such mechanisms based
on true tissue regeneration rather than present day conventional artificial
organ replacements, organ transplantation or palliative forms of therapies
will cause not only valuable advances in human knowledge but a better
quality of life for human as well as for veterinary patients. This book will
contribute significantly in advancing this understanding of the role and
potential of advanced biomaterials and corresponding cell technologies. It
also provides a broad setting of contributions ranging from bench to bedside
technologies and related issues not only limited to biomaterials.
A novel technology is now on the brink to clinical applicability, which
relates to the biomimetics both in biomaterials and also in bionic cell
technologies that can be summed up as “Regeneration learned from nature”.
Biomaterials will have to be measured against their in vivo counterparts
with respect to the performance and sustainability in vivo.
This book also introduces the concept of bionics in stem cell therapy
that is crucially linked to both biomaterials and also to the novel concept
of both in vivo and in situ guided tissue regeneration. Going from bench
to bedside may have seemed a long way to go, but we believe that we are
closer than ever to reach this final goal of clinical sustainability with the
regenerative technologies presented here.
We hope our enthusiasm for biomaterials and regenerative technologies
provides you the same great experience we had when assembling these
contributions from our distinguished contributors.
The book has been supported by the World Federation and World
Institute of Preventive and Regenerative Medicine.
Loredana De Bartolo and Augustinus Bader


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