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Chapter 1 Powerpoint Slides .pdf



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Chapter 1

Remembering
General Chemistry:
Electronic Structure
and Bonding

Paula Yurkanis Bruice
University of California,
Santa Barbara
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

What is Organic Chemistry?
• Organic compounds: from living organisms
(with a vital force)
• Inorganic compounds: from minerals
(with a vital force)

organic chemistry = compounds that contain carbon
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

What Makes Carbon So Special?

• Atoms to the left of carbon give up electrons.
• Atoms to the right of carbon accept electrons.
• Carbon shares electrons.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Structure of an Atom
Protons are positively charged.
Neutrons have no charge.
Electrons are negatively charged.
Atomic number = # of protons
Atomic number of carbon = 6
Neutral carbon has six protons
and six electrons.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Isotopes

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Distribution of Electrons in an Atom

• The first shell is closest to the nucleus.
• The closer the atomic orbital is to the nucleus,
the lower its energy.
• Within a shell, s < p.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Relative Energies of the Atomic Orbitals

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

-Aufbau principle: An electron goes into the atomic orbital with
the lowest energy.
-Pauli exclusion principle: No more than two electrons can be
in an atomic orbital.
-Hund’s rule: An electron goes into an empty degenerate
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
orbital rather than pairing up.

Atoms on the Left Side of the
Periodic Table Lose an Electron

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.


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