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A Short Guide for researchers/scholars interested in a Statistics
Statistics is an integral part of all research studies, a discipline that all
researchers and scientists commonly use to analyze their data and arrive at the
desired research findings and effectively present meaningful conclusions.
Statistical techniques, presently, play a central part in the majority of scientific
disciplines and are frequently utilized to support hypotheses in order to provide
credibility to research methodology and conclusions arrived from these studies.
Thus, many researchers and scholars are keenly interested In Statistics and its
various methods and analytical techniques to ascertain the credibility and
usefulness of the data and information collected from their respective research
studies.
This short guide provides essential information relating to important statistical
concepts like sampling methods, the role of statistics in scientific research to
facilitate them to conduct a well-designed statistical research.
What is Statistics?
Statistics is generally described as a field of science useful to collect, analyze
and to make inference from the various available data. This highly useful branch
of mathematics comprise of two branch of study namely
 Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive statistics is concerned with the description of population under
study and involves the usage of statistical methods to summarize the data
collection. It is useful in organizing analyzing and presenting the collected
Statswork ™ - www.statswork.com
INDIA: Nungambakkam, Chennai – 600 034
UK: The Portergate, Ecclesall Road, Sheffield, S11 8NX

information in a meaningful manner. Appropriate Charts, graphs and tables are
used in the descriptive statistics to describe a situation, the existing data
available and to summarize samples.
Measures of central tendency and Measures of spread are the two levels of
measurement in statistics that are used to describe data and population under
study using commonly used parameters like mean, median, mode, quartiles,
variance and standard deviation.
Inferential Statistics
This branch of statistics focuses on drawing conclusions about the population
by selecting appropriate samples from the population and making an
observation and analysis of the selected samples. Sampling techniques in
statistics are commonly employed in various research studies, and the
commonly used sampling methodologies include
 Simple Random Sampling
 Systematic Sampling
 Stratified Sampling
 Cluster Sampling
 Probability and non-probability sampling
Inferential statistical techniques enable the researchers to select small proportion
of samples from a population using any of the sampling methodologies
mentioned above and to make use of these selected samples to generalize the
population under study. Inferential statistics involves comparison, testing and
predicted of data and utilizes probability techniques to explain the chances of
occurrence of a particular event. By employing these statistical tools, the
researchers and scholars can attempt to reach their desired conclusion of their
Statswork ™ - www.statswork.com
INDIA: Nungambakkam, Chennai – 600 034
UK: The Portergate, Ecclesall Road, Sheffield, S11 8NX

study by investigating the few samples thus allowing them to learn about the
whole population by considerably spending less time, resources and cost.
A Masters in statistics will provide students an in-depth knowledge of the
various useful statistical tools and techniques involved in the descriptive and
inferential statistics.
Importance of Statistics in Research Studies
Social science research uses a number of different statistical approaches to
investigate an array of research related issues. Regardless of the type of the
research areas and issues, all research studies commence with a general idea in
the form of a research question or a hypothesis. A research question is a simple
general question like, for instance,” What are the effects of student’s test
anxiety levels on their overall academic achievement?”. Here the question talks
about the relationship between two variables examination and student’s test
On the other hand, Hypothesis is a more specific question and the researcher
conducting the study has to make a prediction about a particular outcome. The
major difference between the research question and hypothesis is that a
hypothesis gives prediction of the study outcome. For example, the research
hypothesis might describe” There exists a positive relationship between
student’s test anxiety levels and academic achievement”
The researchers have to state the statistical hypothesis of the research study,
which provides an assumption about the particular variable used in the study.
Hypothesis testing is a formal statistical procedure employed in all research
studies to accept or reject the research hypothesis. Critical value approach of

Statswork ™ - www.statswork.com
INDIA: Nungambakkam, Chennai – 600 034
UK: The Portergate, Ecclesall Road, Sheffield, S11 8NX

hypothesis testing enables the researcher to understand how to find critical
values in statistics related research studies.
How to Do Statistical Research?
There are various steps involved in the planning and conducting of a welldesigned statistical research study, which include
 Identification of suitable research topic
 Determine Research questions and state Null and Alternate Hypothesis
 Design the Research study indicating when, where and how to conduct
the study
 Identify data collecting methods based on the sample size proposed for
the study
 Analyze data collected by using statistical analytical techniques
 Interpret the data and generate findings
 Perform data validation
 Present research reports using statistical graphical presentations
Thus, it is imperative for researchers and scholars of research to gain a
sufficient knowledge of the basic statistical concepts and techniques to conduct
a well structured research study. A good understanding of the basic concepts
will facilitate them to gather necessary information, ascertain the credibility and
value of information, and make appropriate informed decisions and publish
reliable research findings.
No wonder, faculty research interests in statistics has grown considerably
among researchers and scholars in recent years.