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International Criminal Court
Office of the Prosecutor
Communications
Post Office Box 19519
2500 CM The Hague
The Netherlands.
A Criminal Complaint Communication to the Office of the Prosecutor
Respectfully submitted by James C. Ryan, Ph.D.
Istanbul, Turkey
6 October 2014
___________________________________________________________________
Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War
___________________________________________________________________

Only the dead have seen the end of war.
—George Santayana
For as long as Winston can recall, Oceania has been in a constant state of war –
with whom it was at war is of neither importance nor consequence.
—George Orwell, 1984

Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War

_________________________________________________________________________

Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War
_________________________________________________________________________

INDEX
1. SUMMARY.........................................................................................

3

2. INTRODUCTION
A. Misbegotten in a Crime..........................................................
B. The Benghazi Rat Line………………………………………….
C. Arms and the Men and Some Countries………………………
D. Intelligence Sharing……………………………………………..
E. The Premise for Legal Action…………………………………..
F. The Criminal Cabal………………………………………………
G. The Accused……………………………………………………..

5
6
7
10
10
11
12

3. LEGAL SUBMISSIONS
A. Introduction.............................................................................
1. Summary of Submissions
2. Summary of Steps Sought from Office of the Prosecutor
B. Jurisdiction………………………………………………………..
1. On Grounds of Territoriality
2. On Grounds of Nationality
C. Admissibility………………………………………………………
1. On Grounds of Gravity,
2. On Grounds of Complementarity
3. On Grounds of Interests of Justice
D. Crimes within the Jurisdiction of the Court…………………...
E. Summary of Charges……………………………………………
G. Conclusion............................................................................
H. The Complainant………………………………………………..
APPENDICES
1. Preamble: Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court……….
2. Foreign Fighters in Syria………………………………………………...
3. Media Evidentiary Extracts (chronological)……………………………

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15

18

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33
34

36
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Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War

1. SUMMARY
Since January 2011 the Syrian Arab Republic, a sovereign state with 18 million people, has
been under attack. Hundreds of thousands have died; three million have fled the country;
half the nation’s population has been displaced. The West, in particular the United States,
seeks, as seems usual, “regime change” and has enlisted the financial support of Saudi
Arabia and Qatar to get it. Turkey is the key implementer providing a staging area primarily
in the southern province of Hatay on the Syrian border. It also serves as a logistics base
affording housing, hospital support, training and a supply line across the border into Syria.
As the world and the United Nations now know, this border is porous, dangerous and
corrupt. A stream of trailer-trucks, shielded from inspection by Turkish intelligence agents,
regularly passes through the gates and disappears into this most savage war. This is the
rolling oil pipeline that finances the bestial offspring of the largely fictional “moderately
Islamic” Free Syria Army now variously known as ISID, ISIS, ISIL and/or IS. Whatever it’s
called, it’s the awful result of massive, aggressive collusion of the United States, Turkey,
Saudi Arabia and Qatar, enthusiastically supported by Jordan, a State Party signatory to the
Rome Statute and hence bound by the provisions of the Statute. These five constitute the
Criminal Cabal.1
Arab Spring, a knock-off label from Czechoslovakia’s Prague Spring of 1968, has drowned
North Africa and the Middle East in a sea of blood. Libya has failed into complete violence.
The Syrian people are on the run—millions have fled the country. The dubious “civil war” is a
full-blown catastrophe, with radical groups now attacking each other, and the most radical of
all, the Islamic State of Syria (ISIS), murdering, pillaging and beheading its way towards
Baghdad. Once thinking it could tell moderates from maniacs, once thinking it could trust the
prime minister of Turkey, America now flounders about how to nuance its the fight with its
own creation—ISIS—without helping the real objective, namely, waging a proxy (and
criminal) war of aggression using mercenaries against Syria and the duly constituted
government of President Bashar al-Assad.
This is the stupidest of quandaries, one caused by a criminal disregard for international law,
incredibly poor judgment and incredibly radical accomplices, in particular the government of
Turkey, specifically its former prime minister now president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. The
other accomplices—Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Jordan— are equally morally abject and
treacherous. It is a sordid off-key cabal, this criminal quintet, this Criminal Cabal, violating
international law with impunity. These arrogant five seem to draw their criminal strength from
the fact that, except for Jordan, none are signatories to the Rome Statute and hence
supposedly not subject to its provisions for humane behavior among law-abiding nations.
These four believe their misdeeds are outside the jurisdiction of the International Criminal
Court (ICC) and even the United Nations. These felonious four do what they please, say
what they like, incite war with their well-financed fanatical, mercenary hordes and inflict
horrendous criminal atrocities on men, women and children, to wit, humanity. And Jordan, a
signatory to the Rome Statute, betrays its promise and illegally collaborates with the Criminal
Cabal.
Illegal weapons support and training from a host of nations, many of them signatories to the
Rome Statute2, has spawned a monstrous, Islamic militant swarm, grown horrendously
violent on its diet of western arms and money. This fact is undeniable as will be shown and
as you may already well know. The danger is clear and present. So much so that the
monster’s benefactors now must try to destroy the monster they created. And by the usual

2

A State (nation) which becomes a Party to the Rome Statute accepts the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court
regarding the most serious crimes afflicting the international community: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and
the crime of aggression (Rome Statute, Article 5). Obviously those State Parties who aid and abet the commission of these
crimes by nations outside ICC jurisdiction will not be held harmless nor will the non-State Party (Rome Statute, Article 12).

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Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War

way—high altitude bombing—guaranteed to harden the monster’s resolve and metastasize
its violent effect. All of which means that more innocent people will die. Such is what passes
for strategic thinking by the United States and its collaborators. Sadly, it is an old story. Such
is the horribly complicated nature of the Cabal’s crimes—a blowback beyond imagination.
Such is the reason for rendering this Complaint to the International Criminal Court (ICC). The
allegations are heinous: war crimes, crimes against humanity and the ultimate international
crime, aggression, indeed an evil thing.
The United States is not a signatory to the Rome Statute, nor is Turkey, Saudi Arabia or
Qatar. Jordan is, but its criminal behavior belies its signature. The Criminal Cabal ordered
the commission of ICC statutory crimes on, in, and over the respective territories of several
ICC member nations, Jordan, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania, for immediate
example. Therefore, the ICC has jurisdiction over the Accused for their statutory crimes in
accordance with Rome Statute Article 12(2)(a).
Importantly, pursuant to Article 27, those accused who operate in an official capacity as
head of state, member of government or government official are neither exempt from
criminal responsibility nor enjoy any immunity whatsoever that constrains the Court’s
jurisdiction. Additionally, there is no statute of limitation regarding the prosecution of these
crimes, to wit: violations of Article 7, Crimes against humanity and Article 8, Crime of
aggression.
The Accused
Listed below are the Accused nations. Principal accused are those primary malefactor
nations most responsible for the crimes committed. Names and specific charges will be
proffered later.
Principal Accused:
United States of America
Turkey
Saudi Arabia
Qatar
Jordan*

Accessory Accused:
Belgium*
Bulgaria*
Croatia*
France*
Great Britain*
Romania*

* denotes a State Party signatory to the Rome Statute.
And now onward to the details wherein the devils always reside.

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2. INTRODUCTION
A. Misbegotten in a Crime
The carnage commenced on 20 March 2003 with a night cruise-missile attack on Baghdad
primarily by the United States. Dubbed shock-and-awe, based on deceit, that crime of
aggression rages still in unparalleled barbarity, in unparalleled illegality, in all its essential
evil. Neither in self-defense nor in accord with the United Nations Charter, American, British,
Australian, Polish and Danish military forces committed “the supreme international
crime…essentially an evil thing.” Such was the judgment of the International Military Tribunal
at Nuremberg regarding wars of aggression. According to the Tribunal, such wars were
essentially an evil thing...to initiate a war of aggression...is not only an
international crime; it is the supreme international crime, differing only from
other war crimes in that it contains within itself the accumulated evil of the
whole.3
Today, there seems no stopping this evil. Millions dead, wounded and displaced. Syria, and
again Iraq, both under attack from a reincarnated, vicious Mujahedeen, variously called ISIL,
ISID, ISID, and IS. This mercenary mob has been created and funded by America and its
equally ambitious, criminal partners. Why? Lacking the will of its citizens to continue the
perpetual war madness on their account (“No boots on the ground!”) a discouraged and
confused America and a servile NATO has resorted to the use of proxy armies—mercenary
guns for hire—to do its dirty work of aggression. Such violence and callous disregard for
international law have erased national borders, setting in flight millions of refugees. All
secular Middle Eastern nations have been destroyed. To what end? Is it oil? Religion?
Unashamed political ambition? Is it democracy? Security? The security of the grave? It is too
late for labels! Time is of the essence. It is time to stop. The rule of law must finally and at
long last be enforced. Without this, the consequences are dire—perpetual war.
The invasion of Iraq in 2003 was illegal. The undeclared war and current bombing campaign
in Syria is illegal. Both countries are now overrun by renegade bands of Islamic militants
seeking to establish their own Islamic state within the territory of existing nations, a clear
crime of aggression. However outrageously bestial these mercenary gangs behave cannot
sever the responsibility from their foundational roots that reside in the Criminal Cabal for
Perpetual War, that is, American and its primary collaborators—Turkey, Saudi Arabia and
Qatar and Jordan. Nor can this evil be divorced from the numerous enablers and suppliers
that support America’s illegal scheme.
Guns and knives do not work by themselves. The deliverers of deadly weapons into the
hands of terrorist mercenaries bear the full burden for how they are used. For European
Union weapons mongers like Belgium, the European Common Position on Arms Sales sets
precise criteria regarding the sales of such weapons.4 These criteria seem to have been
disregarded. Furthermore, many of these collaborating countries are State Party Signatories
to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, thus culpable, thus liable for
prosecution.
Robert Jackson, the chief prosecutor at the Nuremberg Tribunal, called war of aggression
"the greatest menace of our times." What more can be added? We have eyes. Innocent
people are suffering so grievously and we have learned so little.
3

Broomhall, Bruce. (2 ed.). Oxford University Press, p. 46. ISBN 978-0-19-925600-6.
Cohn, Marjorie. Aggressive War: Supreme International Crime, International Clearing House.
11 September 2004 http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article7249.htm
4

http://eeas.europa.eu/non-proliferation-and-disarmament/arms-export-control/index_en.htm

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B. The Benghazi Rat Line
A “rat line” is an escape route. There were Nazi and fascist rat lines from various sites in
Europe to South America at the close of World War II. In CIA parlance it’s a back channel, in
this particular case, from Benghazi, Libya into Syria. Strange indeed to set this up. Strange
because UN Security Council Resolution 1970 (26 Feb. 2011) was designed to have an
immediate ceasefire and provided for an arms embargo regarding Libya.5 It did not seem
strange at the time because no one knew about the rat line. Even stranger, by hindsight, was
the subsequent resolution 1973 that provided for a no-fly zone. Enacted on 17 March 2011,
it removed the arms embargo provisions from the earlier resolution.6 Therein resided the
secret loophole that gave pseudo-legitimacy for the Benghazi Rat Line. One could now bring
in arms for humanitarian purposes, that is, to protect the Libyan civilians who were already
being bombed by NATO. And when that murderous fiasco was over and Muammar Gaddaffi
was disemboweled and anal raped, the arms were needed elsewhere as the Arab Spring
sprung to Syria. And so began the illicit arms transfer system, initially managed by CIA head,
David Petraeus, and later, and disastrously, by the prime minister of Turkey who directed the
weapons flow to radical groups in Syria.7
In this manner, the arms embargo in Libya was violated and the weapons stocks already
huge, grew and grew.8 Early in 2012 the Rat Line began to ship massive amounts of
weapons, much of it from Muammar Gaddafi’s arsenals. Its destination? Southern Turkey, to
the province of Hatay on the northern Syrian border. It’s ultimate destination? Radical
elements of the opposition to the Syrian government of Bashar al-Assad. Recep Tayyip
Erdoğan, the Turkish prime minister, suddenly shifted from bosom buddy to vitriolic,
bombastic hater of Syria’s Bashar al-Assad. (He had earlier pulled the same two-faced trick
on Muammar Gaddafi.)9 Erdoğan made little effort to hide his agenda. And his agenda was

5

UN Security Council Resolution 1970, para. 9.
http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/2B57BBA2-07D9-4C35-B45E-EED275080E87/0/N1124558.pdf
6

UN Security Council Resolution 1973, para. 4.
http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N11/268/39/PDF/N1126839.pdf?OpenElement
7

Foreign nations’ proxy war in Syria creates chaos. Washington Post, David Ignatius. 2 October 2014.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/david-ignatius-foreign-nations-proxy-war-creates-syrian-chaos/2014/10/02/061fb50c4a7a-11e4-a046-120a8a855cca_story.html
8

See: e.g., Libya: foreign mercenaries terrorising citizens, The Telegraph, By Adrian Blomfield, Salloum, February 23, 2011
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8343959/Libya-foreign-mercenaries-terrorisingcitizens.html; Libyan Rebels Say They’re Being Sent Weapons, The New York Times, By ROD NORDLAND April 16, 2011
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/17/world/africa/17libya.html?_r=2&; La France a parachuté des armes aux rebelles libyens, Le
Figaro, Philippe Gelie, Juin 28, 2011, http://www.lefigaro.fr/international/2011/06/28/01003-20110628ARTFIG00704-la-francea-parachute-des-armes-aux-rebelles-libyens.php
9

Erdogan Receives Gaddafi Human Rights Prize, Tripoli Post, 6 December 2010,
http://www.tripolipost.com/articledetail.asp?c=1&i=5195; [Turkish] PM rules out NATO intervention in Libya
Today’s Zaman, February 28, 2011, http://www.todayszaman.com/news-236953-pm-rules-out-nato-intervention-in-libya.html;
Parliament OKs Turkey's involvement in Libya, The Oakland Press, March 24, 2011,
http://www.theoaklandpress.com/general-news/20110324/parliament-oks-turkeys-involvement-in-libya; Turkey Recognizes
Libyan Rebels, Gives $300 Million, AP Reports Bloomberg, by Zaid Sabah and Kim Chipman, July 4, 2011,
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-07-03/turkey-recognizes-libyan-rebels-gives-300-million-ap-reports.html;
In Great Company: Erdogan Wins Gaddafi Human Rights Prize, Asbarez.com, March 2, 2011, http://asbarez.com/93789/ingreat-company-erdogan-wins-gaddafi-human-rights-prize/;

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to fund radical Sunni groups, in particular, al-Nusra, a well-known affiliate of al-Qaeda. The
United States and Great Britain intelligence services obtained the weapons through front
companies and organized the transfer operation. Great Britain’s intelligence service, MI6,
was a cover to enable the CIA to call the “intelligence” relationship a “liaison” which
somehow avoided the requirement to report an illicit operation like this to the US Congress.
Loopholes, always bloody loopholes.
Funding for the Rat Line came from Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. Airports in Turkey
including the US airbase at Incirlik were used extensively. Heavy-freight handling trucks with
TIR designations were used on the ground.10 After the September 2012 attack on the US
consulate, the CIA pulled out. The Rat Line had lengthened its reach beyond Benghazi and
all roads and air routes now led to Turkey, in particular Hatay and its gates opening to the
bloody inferno called Syria. Their lintels should have read, as Dante wrote over the entrance
to hell, “Abandon all hope, you who enter here.”
And post-CIA, who now ran the show? Turkey and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.11 The US knew
in early 2013 that the Turkish government, its intelligence service (M.I.T.) and the
Gendarmes were enabling weapons and other lethal equipment to get into the hands of alNusra.12 So did most Turks who chose to notice. The airports were full of jihadists, in
particular on flights from Istanbul to Hatay Airport.
What lay ahead was the sarin gas attack fiascos, the Turkish false-flag provocations, the
gold-for-oil evasions of UN sanctions, and today, the support of the Turkish government for
the ISID terrorist group, the child born of Libyan terrorist seed, cultured by Turkey and now
pillaging Iraq and Syria with apocalyptic, satanic violence. This is Turkey today. America’s
(and the Criminal Cabal’s) willing stooge, a duplicitous government that endangers its own
people and indeed humanity.13

C. Arms and the Men and Some Countries
Arms were and are smuggled into Syria through a vast, not-so-secret network of sea and
land routes primarily using Turkey as a huge logistical depot and diligent freight-forwarding
agent. And business was very good. Former Soviet block nations like Bulgaria and Rumania
had huge stockpiles of soviet-era military weapons. The Belgian-manufactured FN FAL
assault rifle is in great demand due to its superior range and accuracy vis-à-vis the AK-47.
Large numbers of Belgian weapons have been purchased by Qatar for re-export purposes.
All of these nations involved in the illicit arms transfer scheme—Jordan, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Croatia, France, Great Britain and Rumania—are state party signatories to the Rome
Statute hence fall within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court.
Belgium is the largest manufacturer of military small arms in Europe through its governmentowned firm, FN-Herstal, which also owns two US-based weapons manufacturers—

10

TIR convention. International Road Transports (Transports Internationaux Routiers) TIR,
https://www.iru.org/en_iru_tirconvention
11

See the undocumented but eminently reasonable: The Red Line and the Rat Line, London Review of Books, by Seymour M.
Hersh, 17 April 2014, http://www.lrb.co.uk/v36/n08/seymour-m-hersh/the-red-line-and-the-rat-line
12

Biden’s admission: US allies armed ISIS, World Socialist Web, Patrick Martin. 6 October 2014
http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2014/10/06/pers-o06.html
13

C.I.A. Said to Aid in Steering Arms to Syrian Opposition, New York Times, by ERIC SCHMITT, June 21, 2012,
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/21/world/middleeast/cia-said-to-aid-in-steering-arms-to-syrianrebels.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

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Winchester and Browning. Herstal’s two largest customers are the United States and Saudi
Arabia. It also does significant business with Qatar. Indeed FN-Herstal seems to be the
world’s weapon-maker of choice. Customers of FN-Herstal like France, Egypt, Qatar and the
United Arab Emirates were eager suppliers to the Libyan opposition. Qatar was so eager
that it was in breach of UN Resolution 1970 that imposed an arms embargo on 26 February
2011. Furthermore, Qatar and other “customers” may have violated agreements not to reexport these weapons. Much of the Libyan weaponry is now in Syria thanks to the Benghazi
Rat Line.14
Those European Union members who have exported military weaponry and technology to
Libya and Syria seem to be in broad and reprehensible violation of the spirit and letter of the
2008 European Common Position on Arms Exports. Clearly, even a cursory reading of its
criteria would dictate a total prohibition of arms exports.15 Article 2(2)(a) and (2)(d) clearly
state the need to examine the human rights conditions in the country and, most importantly,
“the need not to affect adversely regional stability in any significant way.” Obviously there
was little attention paid to these and any other criteria in this important instrument designed
to control arms exportation. Yesterday’s Benghazi Rat Line bred today’s slaughter house in
Syria.
The men and, sadly, the women and even the children, some as young as seven years old,16
that mostly flow through Turkey come from more than 80 countries. There were 7,000 in
Syria in January 2014, now it’s at least double that. No one knows for sure, least of all
Turkey’s border guards. Not when there is an al-Nusra promoting prime minister who has yet
to call ISID a terror group. Not where the terrorist oil is smuggled into Turkey, a NATO
member, for quick, cheap sale, thus financing terrorist violence and filling more than a few
Turkish pockets.17 Not when hospitals in southern Turkey regularly treat wounded terrorists.
Turkey is indeed a staging area, a fully operating logistical base and supply line for the
terrorist assault on Syria. So it is no surprise that Richard Barrett notes in his exacting
analysis entitled Foreign Fighters in Syria,

14

See, e.g., Syria Crisis: Where Syrian Fighters Get Their Weapons From, Reuters, By Jonathan Saul and Mariam Karouny
July 13, 2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/13/syria-crisis-rebels-weapons_n_1670780.html; Profit and Proliferation:
A Special Report on Belgian Arms in the Arab Uprising, Part I, AT WAR New York Times, By DAMIEN SPLEETERS
April 5, 2012, http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/05/profit-and-proliferation-a-special-report-on-belgian-arms-in-the-arabuprising-part-i/; Profit and Proliferation, Part 2: Will Belgian Arms End Up in Syria?, AT WAR New York Times, by DAMIEN
SPLEETERS, April 6, 2012, http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/06/profit-and-proliferation-part-2-will-belgian-arms-end-upin-syria/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0, C.I.A. Said to Aid in Steering Arms to Syrian Opposition, New York Times, by ERIC
SCHMITT, June 21, 2012, ww.nytimes.com/2012/06/21/world/middleeast/cia-said-to-aid-in-steering-arms-to-syrianrebels.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0; UN Security Council Resolution 1970, http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/2B57BBA2-07D94C35-B45E-EED275080E87/0/N1124558.pdf; France admits it directly supplied arms to Syrian “rebels”, World Socialist Web,
By Pierre Mabut, 27 August 2014, http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2014/08/27/frsy-a27.html; The US Is Openly Sending Heavy
Weapons From Libya To Syrian Rebels, GEOFFREY INGERSOLL AND MICHAEL B KELLEY, December 9, 2012,
http://www.businessinsider.com/obama-admin-admits-to-covertly-sending-heavy-weapons-to-syrian-rebels-2012-12;
15

See, e.g., Council of the European Union, ‘European Union Code of Conduct on Arms Exports’, 8675/2/98 Rev 2, 5 June
1998; and Council Common Position 2008/944/CFSP of 8 December 2008 defining common rules governing control of exports
of military technology and equipment, Official Journal of the European Union, L335, 8 Dec.2008.
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2008.335.01.0099.01.ENG;
EU Non-Proliferation Consortium, January 2012, The Review of the EU Common Position on Arms Exports,
http://www.sipri.org/research/disarmament/eu-consortium/publications/publications/non-proliferation-paper-7
16

ISIS Is Recruiting And Training Children To Fight, http://www.businessinsider.com/isis-recruiting-children-war-crimes-2014-8.
The UN Human Rights Commission Report, A/HRC/27/60,13 August 2014 said that this case should be referred to the
International Criminal Court.
http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/CoISyria/A.HRC.27.60_Eng.pdf
17

How Isil is funded, trained and operating in Iraq and Syria.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iraq/11052919/How-Isil-is-funded-trained-and-operating-in-Iraq-andSyria.html

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that most extremist groups are concentrated in the North of the country, and so are
the first that many foreigners meet when they cross the Turkish border.18
Approximately one-half of the countries providing citizens to fight as illegal mercenaries in
Syria are State Parties to the Rome Statute.19 Reports abound of individual monthly salaries
paid by Saudi Arabia and Qatar of $500-2000.
So what about the responsibility to control this flood of people and armaments into Turkey by
air and sea? Aren’t visas required? Surely non-Syrians, primarily westerners, exiting
southern Turkey to enter Syria have but one purpose: violence. Porosity is the word; the
Turkish border checkpoints have the solidity and diligence of a summer breeze.20 Trucks
enter uninspected, indeed often protected from scrutiny by Turkish authorities.21
And what about the responsibility of the countries allowing their primarily youthful22 citizens
to travel unhindered and unchecked to the most dangerous place in the world. Are these
nations, particularly those that are signatories to the Rome Statute, not violating the war
crime provisions of that statute? Are not these signatory nations, either willfully or
negligently, aiding and abetting the commission of grave crimes against humanity by their
failure to adequately supervise the passage of their citizens into war-ravaged Syria? And by
enabling their citizens to join with mercenary forces to commit heinous crimes, aren’t these
countries in breach of the Rome Statute?
There are two bold violators, signatories of the Rome Statute, worth citing, to wit, the
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Republic of Croatia. In clear violation of Article 8(b),
Jordan has been a CIA training center for terrorist mercenaries dedicated to overthrowing
the Syrian government. Furthermore, Jordanian, Saudi and Qatari cargo transport airplanes
have been widely used to transport arms to Esenboğa Airport near Ankara as well as to
other Turkish and Jordanian airports. Moreover, CIA operatives have been regularly
assisting Saudi Arabia to procure weapons from Croatia. These caches have been flown to
Jordan on Jordanian transport planes for transfer to southern Turkey for fast forwarding to
terrorist mercenaries.23
What can be made of nations like this? They sign to abide by the provisions of the Rome
Statute, an admirable, moral act taken with many other nations to stand against the “grave
crimes that threaten the peace, security and well-being of the world.” As signatories to the
Rome Statute, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Great Britain, Rumania and Jordan all
resolved to agree “to guarantee lasting respect for and the enforcement of international
18

19

Foreign Fighters in Syria, June 2014. Richard Barrett, P. 24, http://en.calameo.com/read/000009779f631011a5baa
Ibid., Pp.13,14.

20

See, e.g., Turkey's Syria borders an open door for smugglers, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/ru/originals/2014/04/turkeysyria-borders-smuggling-guns-conflict-kurds-pkk-isis.html#; "TIR'ı verin yoksa çatışma çıkar", http://www.haber7.com/guncel/haber/1124219tiri-verin-yoksa-catisma-cikar; As Turkey turned blind eye, ISIS took advantage, http://news.yahoo.com/turkey-turned-blind-eye-isis031003793.html
21

Turkey declares vanishing truck to Syria 'state secret', http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/01/vanished-turkishtruck-state-secret.html#
22

Op.cit.,Barrett, P. 15. “the typical age range is 18-29”

23

See, e.g., CIA ramping up covert training program for moderate Syrian rebels,
http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/cia-ramping-up-covert-training-program-for-moderate-syrianrebels/2013/10/02/a0bba084-2af6-11e3-8ade-a1f23cda135e_story.html; I LEARNED TO FIGHT LIKE AN AMERICAN AT THE
FSA TRAINING CAMP IN JORDAN, http://www.vice.com/en_uk/read/syria-deraa-USA-Jordan-FSA-regime-CIA; CIA Activities
in Syria: US Never Stops to Step on Same Rake, http://www.globalresearch.ca/cia-activities-in-syria-us-never-stops-to-step-onsame-rake/5353324; Syrie : l'opération anti-Assad a commence,
http://www.lefigaro.fr/international/2013/08/22/01003-20130822ARTFIG00438-syrie-l-operation-anti-assad-a-commence.php

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justice.”24 So what happened? When the time came to take a stand for justice and peace
they collaborated with the Criminal Cabal and became dogs of war. How can this
treacherous betrayal of principles stand unpunished? It cannot. If it does, the International
Criminal Court, the last bastion of hope against the barbarity of preemptive, illegal war, will
collapse, betrayed by its constituent nations.
D. Intelligence Sharing
There have been numerous reports of Signatory Party nations to the Rome Statute providing
intelligence and training to mercenary forces seeking the overthrow of the legitimate Syrian
regime of Bashar al-Assad. The United States, a non-signatory, has used its CIA to recruit
the cooperation of British, French and Jordanian intelligence to train so-called Syrian rebel
forces in the use of weapons. It is also widely reported that French, British and Jordanian
intelligence services are training mercenaries to assist in the destruction of the Syrian
government. This training is being conducted in Syria and is an American-led operation.25
Turkey also established a secret base near the Syrian border to help direct vital military and
communications support to the mercenary opponents of the Syrian government. In August
2012, reports abounded of an operations “nerve center” established in Adana, Turkey, the
location of the Incirlik US air base.26
E. The Premise for Legal Action
There is a significant body of evidence from official sources, non-governmental
organizations and investigative journalists that provides a reasonable case for the
Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court to investigate whether the United States
and/or any of its collaborators and accessories are guilty of crimes within the Court’s
jurisdiction. Indeed, the crimes in question fall within the jurisdiction of the court and relate to
the following violations of the Rome Statute:
Article 7. Crimes against Humanity
Article 8. War Crimes and the Crime of Aggression
The use of proxy mercenary armies may to a degree mask the identities of their sponsors.
But surely it does not hide them, nor their aggression from the reaches of international law.
Aggression is a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations, indeed, an evil thing.
Article 8(1) and Article 8(2)(g) are crystalline on that point. The Crime of Aggression as
articulated in the Rome Statute originated in the Nuremberg Principles and the United
Nations Charter. The aspects of aggression as defined were originally called “crimes against

24

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, p.1.
http://www.icc-cpi.int/nr/rdonlyres/ea9aeff7-5752-4f84-be94-0a655eb30e16/0/rome_statute_english.pdf
25

See, e.g., Report: CIA provides intelligence to Syrian rebels, AFP, Yitzhak Benhorin, March 23, 2013
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4360110,00.html; CIA monitors potential terrorists in Syria, YNET, March 16, 2013,
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4357006,00.html; Report: Americans training Syria rebels in Jordan, Reuters,
March 10, 2013, http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4354749,00.html
26

See, e.g., Obama authorized covert support for Syrian rebels, sources say, CNN, August 2, 2012,
http://edition.cnn.com/2012/08/01/us/syria-rebels-us-aid/; Darnell Gitti-(TAMAMI), Aydinlik, August 8. 2012,
http://www.aydinlikgazete.com/mansetler/14303-darnell-gitti.html; Fars Haber Ajansı Aydınlık’ın haberini dünyaya duyurdu, Aydinlik, August
9, 2012, http://www.aydinlikgazete.com/mansetler/14273-fars-haber-ajansi-aydinlikin-haberini-dunyaya-duyurdu.html; Rebel Groups in Syria Make
Framework for Military, New York Times, by NEIL MacFARQUHAR and HWAIDA SAAD, December 7, 2012,
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/08/world/middleeast/rebel-groups-in-syria-make-framework-for-military.html;

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peace,” as they remain labeled today in the U.S. Army’s Field Manual 27-10, Law of Land
Warfare.27 Peace lovers always seek peace. But first seek justice!
As discussed earlier, four of the Principal Accused—the United States, Turkey, Saudi
Arabia and Qatar—are not contracting parties to the Rome Statute. Nevertheless, it was
under their order and influence that the planning and preparation commenced to procure
armaments, establish logistical bases and transportation conveyances in order to commit the
ultimate crime of aggression. To that end they. The Principal Accused, employed the
services of Accessory nations, all of whom were signatories to the Rome Statute. These
accessories-before-the-fact made a vital contribution to enable the Principal Accused to
launch their act of aggression against Syria, a sovereign nation and fellow member of the
United Nations. For these criminal actions, these Accessory Nations are clearly liable for
prosecution by the International Criminal Court. But so too is the Principal Accused, to wit,
the Criminal Cabal.
The Criminal Cabal encouraged and allowed their criminal accessories to commit
International Criminal Court statutory crimes on, in, and over the respective territories of
several ICC State Party signatories, to wit, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania and
Jordan. Therefore, the ICC has jurisdiction over the Accused for these statutory crimes in
accordance with Rome Statute article 12(2)(a) and (b) which affords the jurisdiction to the
ICC to prosecute statutory crimes committed in ICC member states.
In fact, the intelligence agencies of the principal Accused ordered and were responsible for
the commission of these ICC. statutory crimes in the respective territories of several ICC
member states. Weapons and ammunition were requisitioned in and sent from numerous
member states. Training facilities were provided by Jordan, a clear crime of aggression
(Article 8(1) and (2). Finally, manpower was provided from a vast number of aiding and
abetting nations that failed to be aware of the provisions of international law, in this case, the
naked aggression that their citizens were committing against the duly constituted
government of sovereign Syria.
Surely these undercover activities qualify as a crime of aggression under the language of
Article 5 as the “planning, preparation, initiating or execution” of military action against
another sovereign nation. And “armed bands, groups, irregulars or mercenaries” are similarly
proscribed.
F. The Criminal Cabal
Four members of the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War, to wit, the United States of America,
Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar, unfortunately, but understandably, are not State Parties to
the Rome Statute. The other member, Jordan, is, a fact that may prove the Cabal’s demise.
The Cabal and their aforementioned Accessory Accomplice nations, who are signatory
parties, have embarked together on a violent, selfish, criminal pursuit of national interest. In
so doing they have committed the ultimate international crime, the crime of aggression. Their
“strategic interests,” largely unspecified except by generalities like “democracy”, “freedom”,
and “markets” have made a charnel house of North Africa and the Middle East.
These rogue, flagrantly criminal nations should not go unpunished. They have violated with
impunity Rome Statute Article 8, Crime of Aggression by aiding and abetting mercenary
forces to commit savage war crimes in Syria, and now Iraq. These are laws that emerged
from the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials. These are laws that any civilized nation would
27

U.S. Army Field Manual 27-10, Chapter 8 Remedies for Violation of International Law, Sect. II (498)(a)
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/27-10/Ch8.htm#s2

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embrace as a way of life, indeed they are a code of universal honorable behavior. These are
the laws that the Criminal Cabal and its collaborator nations have shredded and ignored.
As for the forty signatory nations that allowed, either wittingly or unwittingly, its citizens to ally
themselves with mercenary forces attacking the sovereign nation of Syria, and now Iraq,
provisions of Article 8 also apply. Article 8(1) “planning, preparation” language and
paragraph 2(g) relating to “sending […] irregulars or mercenaries” should be applied and
enforced.
The basis of this Criminal Complaint to the International Criminal Court regarding
accusations of committing the crime of aggression is consistent with the purpose of the
Rome Statute, Article 8(1) which defines the crime as:
“crime of aggression” means the planning, preparation, initiation or execution,
by a person in a position effectively to exercise control over or to direct the
political or military action of a State, of an act of aggression which, by its
character, gravity and scale, constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of
the United Nations.” 28
The next paragraph, Article 8(2)(g) explains that the aggression need not be committed by
the regular armed forces of a State. The sending of mercenaries also qualifies as a crime of
aggression, to wit,
The sending by or on behalf of a State of armed bands, groups, irregulars or
mercenaries, which carry out acts of armed force against another State of
such gravity as to amount to the acts listed above, or its substantial
involvement therein.29
G. The Accused
Principals:
United States of America citizens: Barack Hussein Obama, Hillary Rodham Clinton, John
Forbes Kerry, John Owen Brennan, Michael Joseph Morell, David Howell Petraeus, Leon
Edward Panetta
Turkish citizens: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Ahmet Davutoğlu, Hakan Fidan.
Saudi Arabian citizens: King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz and Prince Saud al-Faisal.
Qatari citizens: Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa and Al Thani
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani.
Jordanian citizens: Abdullah II ibn al-Hussein and Abdullah Ensour.
Accessories:
Belgian citizen: Elio Di Rupo,
Bulgarian citizens: Boyko Borisov, Marin Raykov Nikolov and Plamen Vasilev Oresharski
Croatian citizens: Ivo Josipović and Zoran Milanović.
French citizen: François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande
Great Britain citizen: David William Donald Cameron
Romanian citizens: Traian Băsescu and Victor-Viorel Ponta.
The specific charges against the above individuals, all in positions to exercise varying
degrees of control over the political and military actions of a state, will be enumerated in the
Legal Submissions, Section 3 below. Presidents, prime ministers and kings do not operate
in a vacuum, nor do their advisors.
28
29

Rome Statute, Article 8(1).
Ibid., Article 8(2)(g).

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3. LEGAL SUBMISSIONS
A. INTRODUCTION
As the evidence shown above illustrates, the arming, training and logistical support of
mercenary forces by the United States, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Jordan for groups
opposed to the duly constituted government in Syria, raises profoundly serious issues of
potential criminality under the Rome Statute. Reports indicate that hundreds of thousands of
Syrian civilians have been killed, three million have fled the country. Overall, nine million
people—one-half the nation’s population—have been displaced. There is a significant body
of evidence from official sources, NGOs and investigative journalists that suggests there is a
reasonable basis to believe that crimes of the utmost gravity within the jurisdiction of the
International Criminal Court may have been committed.
Of anticipatory concern to the Complainant is that the Prosecutor might conclude that the
submitted information does not provide a reasonable basis to conduct a formal investigation.
Given the vast and horrendous nature of the crimes, the availability of information alone
should not be a reason to refuse further investigation. Allowance should and can be made
for the real prospect of additional compelling evidence becoming available through a formal
investigation, particularly if the Complainant has demonstrated the existence of a reasonable
probability that these crimes were committed. Certainly the Prosecutor would be able to
obtain such evidence from the relevant authorities whose cooperation has not yet been
forthcoming. For the avoidance of doubt, it is submitted that the Prosecutor should consider
this Complaint in the context of a preliminary evaluation that has demonstrated probable
cause that serious crimes have been committed.
In analyzing the seriousness of the information received, it is respectfully requested that the
Prosecutor seek additional information from the United States, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Qatar,
Jordan, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Great Britain, Rumania, Syria and NATO, as
well as intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and other reliable sources in
accordance with Article 15(2) of the Rome Statute.
The crime of aggression subsumes all other crimes of war. And the signatory nations that aid
and abet the four non-signatory “principal” nations—the United States, Turkey, Saudi Arabia
and Qatar—in their misdeeds are accomplices-before-the-fact and deserve no lesser
punishment than the principals. Surely Jordan, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Great
Britain, and Rumania, being State Party Signatories presumes a heightened awareness of
these most serious crimes that plague the international community. Being a State Party
implies, as the Rome Statute states, “a lasting respect for and the enforcement of
international justice.” Instead, these accomplices chose the darkness and became
accessories to the crimes of the Cabal. Jordan deserves special condemnation for its
cooperation with the Cabal, thus defiling the spirit of the Rome Statute. If nothing is done
about the transgressions of these nations and their accomplices, the civilized world will
finish. This is terribly obvious, as obvious as serving the interests and collaborating in the
crimes of the Cabal is a crime against humanity.
1. Summary of Submissions
In particular, the Court has jurisdiction in respect to the subject matter of the present
complaint under Article 12(2) of the Rome Statute on the grounds that:


First, while the United States, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar are not contracting
parties to the Rome Statute, nevertheless, the Accused ordered and were
responsible for the commission of ICC statutory crimes on, in, and over
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the respective territories of several ICC member states: Jordan, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Croatia, France, Great Britain and Romania. Therefore, the ICC has jurisdiction over
the Accused for their statutory crimes in accordance with Rome Statute article
12(2)(a) and (b) that affords jurisdiction to prosecute for ICC statutory crimes
committed in member states; and/or


Second, perpetrators of crimes resulting from conduct discussed in this Complaint
are, or may be, nationals of State Parties to the Rome Statute in accordance with
Article 25(3) which assigns individual criminal responsibility. This includes nationals
of Jordan as well as NATO member state signatories Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,
France, Great Britain and Romania who provided material assistance in planning,
preparation, initiation and execution of the aggression against Syria.



Third, not surprisingly, Syria has not consented to the use of force within its territory.
To the contrary, Syria has repeatedly described this mercenary proxy invasion as a
violation of its sovereignty. Nor is there any UN Resolution that authorizes the use of
force in Syria.

Therefore, there is a reasonable basis for concluding that:


The Court has jurisdiction over the subject matter of this complaint.



The complaints are admissible.



The deaths, injuries and destruction caused by this horrific aggression are of
such gravity as to justify investigation by the Prosecutor.



It is solidly in the interests of justice that, if crimes have, or may have been,
committed, they be prosecuted. In these circumstances the Office of the
Prosecutor must ensure that these crimes are investigated in accordance with
Article 53 of the Rome Statute.

Finally, it is respectfully requested that the International Criminal Court issue arrest warrants
immediately for the above name principal Accused in accordance with Rome Statute Article
58(1)(a), Article 58(1)(b)(i), Article 58(1)(b)(ii), and Article 58(1)(b)(iii). The sooner the better
for all humankind.
2. Summary of Steps Sought from Office of the Prosecutor


In analyzing the serious nature of the information received, it is requested that the
Prosecutor seek additional information from the United States, Turkey, Saudi Arabia,
Qatar, Jordan, Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria, NATO and intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations and other reliable sources in accordance with Article 15
(2) of the Rome Statute.



Before determining the question of territorial jurisdiction, a matter of great
importance, it is further requested that the Prosecutor request a ruling from the court
on this question in accordance with Article 19 (3) of the Statute.



Finally, it is requested that the Prosecutor initiate an investigation of the facts
surrounding this Communication in accordance with Article 51 (1) of the Statute.

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These steps are of great importance to the Complainant and to humanity. It will further
validate the stated purpose of the International Criminal Court, to wit:
that the most serious crimes of concern to the international community must
not go unpunished and that their effective prosecution must be ensured.30
It is vital to the world that a legal process commence to bring justice to all those who have
been unable to challenge the conduct of the Cabal and its collaborators in any forum,
domestic or international. This Complaint is made on behalf of the dead, the dying, the
grievously wounded, and all the psychologically traumatized victims of this apparently
endless criminal aggression. The opportunity to be heard and acknowledged is of critical
importance. For the sake of present and future generations, justice must not only be served
but also preserved.

B. JURISDICTION ON GROUNDS OF TERRITORIALITY AND NATIONALITY
The International Criminal Court’s jurisdiction over the crimes committed arises in two
aspects:


First, on the grounds of territorial jurisdiction since the attacks on the sovereign
State of Syria were prepared and supplied and de facto partially planned and
executed in State Party territories by State Parties. This is tantamount to launching
attacks from a State Party, to wit: Jordan, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania.



Second, regarding nationality jurisdiction, there is a reasonable and welldocumented basis to conclude that nationals of approximately 40 State Parties to the
Rome Statute have participated in the execution and ongoing commission of the
crime of aggression under the Statute. 31

1. Territoriality
Although the United States, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Syria are not signatories (State
Parties) to the Rome Statute the court has jurisdiction over conduct which has occurred on
the territory of a non-State Party where the accused is a national of a State that has
accepted jurisdiction. Accordingly, via Article 12(2)(a) of the Statute, the ICC has jurisdiction
over acts amounting to crimes under the ICC Statute that were committed by citizens of the
following States: United States, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,
France, Great Britain, Jordan and Romania. 32
It has been well documented that arms have been exported, gathered, shipped and
otherwise transported to Syria from, at least, the following State Party nations: Belgium,
Bulgaria, Croatia, Jordan and Romania. The process of firing weapons used in a criminal
aggression by rogue mercenaries begins with the process of procuring and delivering these
weapons into their criminal hands. Regarding territorial jurisdiction, according to Article 12
(2), the Court may exercise jurisdiction under the Statute where “The State on the territory of
which the conduct in question occurred” is a State Party to the Statute. Furthermore France
30

Rome Statute, p.1.

31

See Appendix 3, Foreign Fighters in Syria.

32

Rome Statute, Article 12 (2) (a), Preconditions to the exercise of jurisdiction
http://legal.un.org/icc/statute/romefra.htm

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and Great Britain have collaborated with the Cabal by training mercenaries thus furthering
their criminal purpose and pursuit. This, too, has been largely conducted in Jordan, a State
Party to the Rome Statute.
Importantly, Article 31 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties holds that a “treaty
shall be interpreted in good faith in accordance with the ordinary meaning to be given to the
terms of the treaty in their context and in light of its object and purpose.” 33 Rome Statute
Article 12(2)(a) is absent any stipulation that all of the criminal conduct must occur within the
territory of the State Party to the Statute.
Within the context of Article 2(2)(a), other provisions of the Statute must be considered.
Article 25 elaborates the conditions under which individuals can incur criminal responsibility
under the Statute. This includes aiding and abetting, facilitating, ordering, soliciting or
inducing a crime or joint criminal enterprise. There is no basis to interpret Article 2(2)(a)
requiring that each and every element of the criminal conduct be committed within the
territory of a State Party. Many crimes will involve conduct occurring partly within the territory
of a State Party and partly without. Were liability to be precluded for this reason many crimes
would avoid the jurisdiction of the Court. Such an interpretation would undermine the
concept of individual criminal responsibility as established in Article 25 of the Statute.
Thus the above State Party nations are accessories-before-the-fact with apparent
foreknowledge that a crime of aggression was being planned. Furthermore, Jordan
reportedly was and is used as a training base for radical mercenaries allegedly under the
supervision of the CIA. Owing to a lack of a comprehensive investigation, this Complainant is
unable to establish whether the “planning, preparation, initiation or execution”34 phases of
the crime of aggression were limited to the above State Party nations.
It is almost unnecessary to state that the nationality of a perpetrator is irrelevant to the
territorial jurisdiction of the Court. States are allowed to prosecute foreign nationals who
commit crimes in their territories. Furthermore, territorial jurisdiction does not and could not
apply only to crimes occurring completely within the State. For example, in the case of this
Complaint, aiding and abetting a crime by supplying arms to perpetrators outside the State’s
territory where they know a crime will be committed. The principle of subjective territorial
jurisdiction, established in 1926 in the S.S. Lotus case (France v. Turkey) 35, entitles a State
on whose territory a criminal attack was launched to exercise jurisdiction over that crime.
So the fact that the United States, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar are not contracting
parties to the Rome Statute is no bar to the Court’s prosecution of these Accused because
they have ordered and been responsible for the commission of the Rome Statute Crime of
Aggression on, in, and over the respective territories of at least five ICC State Parties. Article
13, paragraphs (a) and/or (c), explains the Court’s prerogatives for exercising its jurisdiction.
Paragraph (a) provides jurisdiction if one or more of the States are Parties to this Statute or
have accepted the jurisdiction of the Court in accordance with paragraph (3).36 Paragraph (c)

33

34

VIENNA CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF TREATIES, Section 3, Article 31, General Rule of Interpretation.
Ibid.. Article 8 (1), Crime of aggression.

35

UNTERM, Territorial Principle,
http://unterm.un.org/dgaacs/unterm.nsf/8fa942046ff7601c85256983007ca4d8/082fdcf5273de32485256e7b00645b66?OpenDo
cument
36

Ibid., Article 12 (3). “If the acceptance of a State which is not a Party to this Statute is required under paragraph 2, that State
may, by declaration lodged with the Registrar, accept the exercise of jurisdiction by the Court with respect to the crime in
question. The accepting State shall cooperate with the Court without any delay or exception in accordance with Part 9.”

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allows the Court to exercise its jurisdiction if “The Prosecutor has initiated an investigation in
respect of such a crime in accordance with Article 15.” 37
Pursuant to Rome Statute Article 13(c), it is requested that the Prosecutor initiate an
investigation proprio motu against the Accused in accordance with Rome Statute Article 15
(1): “The Prosecutor may initiate investigations proprio motu on the basis of information on
crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court.” It is suggested that this Complaint alone against
the Accused constitutes “sufficient information” in accordance with Rome Statute Article
15(1). Additionally, it is respectfully suggested that this Complaint also constitutes a
reasonable basis to proceed with an investigation under Rome Statute Article 15(3).
2. Nationality
There is a reasonable basis to believe that nationals of State Parties to the Rome Statute
may have aided and abetted the commission of war crimes and the crime of aggression all
amounting to crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court. Certainly the flood of arms, primarily
through Jordan and Turkey, engendered the use of the nationals of State Parties. Jordanian
citizens would be subject to immediate scrutiny. But the State Party weapons suppliers
mentioned earlier—Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania—undoubtedly employed their
citizens in implementing the arms shipments.38 Jordan was a particularly accommodating
State Party. Not only did it allow weapons to flow over its border into Syria, it used its military
cargo planes to expedite the delivery of weapons by its fellow State Party nations. Not
satisfied with these brazen breaches in the Rome Statute, Jordan also permitted foreign
intelligence agents to operate secret training camps on its territory.39 One wonders why it
bothered to sign and ratify the Rome Statute. Finally, the flow of foreign fighters into Syria
was intense and mostly ignored until of late. At least 81 countries, half of them signatories to
the Rome Statute, provided at least 2,500 of their citizens to participate in the Cabal’s crime
of aggression in Syria.40 Of course, this number has expanded significantly since the
documentation occurred.
37

Ibid., Article 13, Exercise of jurisdiction.

38

See, e.g., Arms Airlift to Syria Rebels Expands, With Aid From C.I.A., New York Times, March 24, 2013
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/25/world/middleeast/arms-airlift-to-syrian-rebels-expands-with-cia-aid.html?pagewanted=all;
Saudis Step Up Help for Rebels in Syria With Croatian Arms, New York Times, February 25, 2013
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/26/world/middleeast/in-shift-saudis-are-said-to-arm-rebels-in-syria.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Syria Crisis: Where Syrian Fighters Get Their Weapons From, Reuters, July 13, 2012;
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/13/syria-crisis-rebels-weapons_n_1670780.html; Advanced U.S. Weapons Flow to
Syrian Rebels, Wall Street Journal, April 18, 2014,
http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304626304579509401865454762; In Turnabout, Syria Rebels Get
Libyan Weapons, , New York Times, June 21, 2013
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/22/world/africa/in-a-turnabout-syria-rebels-get-libyan-weapons.html?_r=0
Profit and Proliferation: A Special Report on Belgian Arms in the Arab Uprising, Part I
New York Times, April 5, 2012
http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/05/profit-and-proliferation-a-special-report-on-belgian-arms-in-the-arab-uprising-part-i/
Profit and Proliferation, Part 2: Will Belgian Arms End Up in Syria? New York Times, April 6, 2012
http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/06/profit-and-proliferation-part-2-will-belgian-arms-end-up-insyria/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0
39

CIA ramping up covert training program for moderate Syrian rebels, Washington Post, October 2, 2013
http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/cia-ramping-up-covert-training-program-for-moderate-syrianrebels/2013/10/02/a0bba084-2af6-11e3-8ade-a1f23cda135e_story.html; CIA Activities in Syria: US Never Stops to Step on
Same Rake, Global Research, October 7, 2013,
http://www.globalresearch.ca/cia-activities-in-syria-us-never-stops-to-step-on-same-rake/5353324; I LEARNED TO FIGHT LIKE
AN AMERICAN AT THE FSA TRAINING CAMP IN JORDAN, VICE.COM, April 3, 2014
http://www.vice.com/en_uk/read/syria-deraa-USA-Jordan-FSA-regime-CIA;
40

Hundreds Of Westerners Have Joined ISIS, And Here's Where They Came From, Business Insider, April 27, 2014
http://www.businessinsider.com/isis-is-recruiting-westerners-countries-2014-8; FOREIGN FIGHTERS IN SYRIA, Soufan Group,
June 2014, http://soufangroup.com/foreign-fighters-in-syria/; Turkey struggles as "lone gatekeeper" against Islamic State

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These criminal practices have been the subject of considerable publicity and controversy.
The above cited State Parties and their nationals who supplied the vast arsenal of weaponry
to the forces attempting to overthrow the duly constituted Syrian government surely knew
that the armaments would be used in the furtherance of a crime of aggression. Surely they
should have known that such a crime would be within the jurisdiction of the Court. In the
case of Croatia, the huge size of the weapons shipments suggests such foreknowledge and
approval by the government thus implying criminal intent by the government.
C. ADMISSIBILITY: GRAVITY, COMPLEMENTARITY AND INTERESTS OF JUSTICE
1. Gravity
From any viewpoint, the nature, scale and impact of these acts of astounding violence
provides reasonable grounds to believe that crimes against humanity, war crimes and the
overarching crime of aggression have been committed. Can there be any doubt that the
conduct in question is of sufficient gravity to fall within the Court’s jurisdiction as a matter of
principle? Hundreds of thousands killed, half of Syria’s population displaced, three million
have fled to neighboring countries. Does this not render self-evident the question of whether
this conduct is sufficiently grave and disproportionate to pass the gravity threshold? Is it not
almost beyond the reach of human thought that arming, training and encouraging mercenary
forces to overthrow a sovereign nation would entail such wholesale murder of innocent
people? Have not the consumption of the internal organs of dying people, along with
crucifixions, beheadings and dismemberments gone well beyond all standards of “gravity?”
The interests of the victims of these horrors must be served. Is this not what the Court meant
when it said in its Preamble (see Appendix, Exhibit 1) that “the most serious crimes of
concern to the international community as a whole must not go unpunished and that their
effective prosecution must be ensured”?
2. Complementarity
There are no national investigative or prosecutorial authorities willing or able to investigate or
bring to trial the conduct that is the subject of this Complaint. Surely none of the institutions
of these Accused are interested. And an investigation by Syrian authorities, a nation beset
on all sides by aggressors, is clearly unfeasible and even ridiculous. As matters now stand,
there is no possibility that some national authority would investigate much less prosecute
these crimes. Accordingly, the only institution capable of conducting an investigation is the
International Criminal Court. This Court is indeed humanity’s justice institution of last resort.
3. Interests of Justice
Clearly these crimes are of sufficient gravity to fall within the jurisdiction of the Court. Equally
evident is the incontrovertible fact that any and all national authorities are unwilling and/or
unable to investigate such massive crimes. Accordingly, it is inconceivable that the interests
of justice would intervene against the investigation of these crimes. The sheer mayhem
involved in this aggression would argue for investigation. Furthermore, it is essential that the
commitment of State Parties to vigorous enforcement the Rome Statue continue. The Court
itself said as much
Paragraph four of the Preamble underlines that the States Parties are
determined to put an end to impunity for the perpetrators of the most serious
crimes of concern to the international community and thus to contribute to
recruitment, REUTERS, August 26, 2014,
http://af.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idAFKBN0GQ0ZE20140826?feedType=RSS&sp=true;

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their prevention. The last paragraph indicates their resolve “to guarantee
lasting respect for and the enforcement of international justice”. Thus,
considerations of prevention of serious crimes and guaranteeing lasting
respect for international justice may be significant touchstones in assessing
the interests of justice.41
It is exactly the impunity of the Criminal Cabal that must be checked. Nothing less than the
continuation of a law-abiding world is at stake. Notwithstanding this, the Prosecutor has a
specific responsibility to consider the interests of the victims42—hundreds of thousands
killed, millions displaced by the aggression perpetrated by the Criminal Cabal. And not just to
see justice done on their behalf but to see justice triumphant as a safeguard for all those
who might be victims of this, or some other criminal cabal in the future. Everything depends
upon making impunity impossible.

D. CRIMES WITHIN THE JURISDICTION OF THE COURT
The following summary sets out some of the central evidence of crimes within the jurisdiction
of the Court. Obviously, it does not purport to provide an exhaustive summary of all the
evidence available in respect to each crime. Nor is it intended to set out exhaustively all
those crimes under the Statute which may have arisen through these criminal acts. It does,
however, identify and summarize a body of evidence which indicates a reasonable basis
(indeed, in some instances, a compelling basis) for concluding, at this stage, that these
incidents and circumstances involve crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court.
It is important to note that Rome Statute, Article 8 is clear that those aggressors that
empower mercenaries receive no protection from the law, to wit, Article 8 (2) (g):
The sending by or on behalf of a State of armed bands, groups, irregulars or
mercenaries, which carry out acts of armed force against another State of
such gravity as to amount to the acts listed above, or its substantial
involvement therein.43
Accordingly, the following nations are charged as follows:
Jordan
 Primary malefactor. There are twelve nations herein accused of criminal behavior
relevant to the breach of the Rome Statute. Of the five Principal Accused only one,
Jordan, is a State Party signatory to the Rome Statute. Jordan has been
extraordinarily helpful as a war monger to the other members of the Criminal Cabal—
the United States, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. It has employed and devoted its
intelligence services, its military transport planes for weapons delivery and its own
territory for training purposes in the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of
an act of aggression against the sovereign nation of Syria. These are gross and
obvious crimes against the Rome Statute, a body of law that Jordan embraced,
signing on 7 October 1998, ratifying on 11 April 2002 and now in complete and
criminal breach of Article 8, Crime of Aggression.

41

International Criminal Court, Policy Paper on the Interests of Justice, Understanding the meaning of the Interests of Justice
within the Statute, 4 (c). September 2007.
http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/772C95C9-F54D-4321-BF09-73422BB23528/143640/ICCOTPInterestsOfJustice.pdf’
42
43

Ibid., p. 5.
Rome Statute, Article 8 (2) (g), Crime of aggression.

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Contributed to the “planning, preparation, initiation or execution” of an act of
aggression which by its character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the
Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2), Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7,
Crimes against humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed
against any civilian population…” (a) Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer
of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced disappearance of persons, (k)
Other inhumane acts.

United States of America
 Primary malefactor. Adana, Turkey control center. Encouraged and incited State
Party nations—Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Great Britain, Romania—to
provide intelligence services and military instruction to mercenary forces to attack the
sovereign nation of Syria. Procurer of arms for illegal mercenary forces to commit the
crime of aggression.
 Contributed to the “planning, preparation, initiation or execution” of an act of
aggression which by its character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the
Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2), Crime of aggression)
 Aided and abetted subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7,
Crimes against humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed
against any civilian population…” (a) Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer
of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced disappearance of persons, (k)
Other inhumane acts.
Turkey
 Primary malefactor. Procurer and supplier of arms, including chemical weaponry, to
mercenary forces, primarily al-Nusra gangs. Prime minister contributed relentless
war-mongering rhetoric against Syrian president Bashar al-Assad. Intelligence
services intensively aided rebel militants.
 Provided transportation services for weapons and other lethal equipment to
mercenaries.
 Contributed to the “planning, preparation, initiation or execution” of an act of
aggression which by its character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the
Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2), Crime of aggression)
 Aided and abetted subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7,
Crimes against humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed
against any civilian population…” (a) Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer
of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced disappearance of persons, (k)
Other inhumane acts.
Saudi Arabia
 Primary malefactor. Provided intelligence services and military instruction to
mercenary forces to attack the sovereign nation of Syria.
 Provided financing for weapons procurement to overthrow Syrian government.
 Provided transportation services for weapons and other lethal equipment to
mercenaries.
 Contributed to the “planning, preparation, initiation or execution” of an act of
aggression which by its character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the
Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2), Crime of aggression)
 Aiding and abetting subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7,
Crimes against humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed
against any civilian population…” (a) Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer
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of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced disappearance of persons, (k)
Other inhumane acts.
Qatar
 Primary malefactor. Provided intelligence services and military instruction to
mercenary forces to attack the sovereign nation of Syria.
 Provided financing for weapons procurement to overthrow duly constituted Syrian
government.
 Provided transportation services for weapons and other lethal equipment to
mercenary forces.
 Contributed to the “planning, preparation, initiation or execution” of an act of
aggression which by its character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the
Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2), Crime of aggression)
 Aided and abetted subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7,
Crimes against humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed
against any civilian population…” (a) Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer
of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced disappearance of persons, (k)
Other inhumane acts.
Belgium
 Secondary malefactor. Provided weapons for use by illegal mercenaries to overthrow
the duly established government of Syria.
 Contributed to the “planning, preparation, initiation or execution” of an act of
aggression which by its character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the
Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2), Crime of aggression)
 Aided and abetted subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7,
Crimes against humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed
against any civilian population…” (a) Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer
of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced disappearance of persons, (k)
Other inhumane acts.
Bulgaria
 Secondary malefactor. Provided weapons for use by illegal mercenaries to overthrow
the duly established government of Syria.
 Contributed to the “planning, preparation, initiation or execution” of an act of
aggression which by its character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the
Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2), Crime of aggression)
 Aided and abetted subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7,
Crimes against humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed
against any civilian population…” (a) Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer
of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced disappearance of persons, (k)
Other inhumane acts.
Croatia
 Secondary malefactor. Provided weapons for use by illegal mercenaries to overthrow
the duly established government of Syria.
 Contributed to the “planning, preparation, initiation or execution” of an act of
aggression which by its character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the
Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2), Crime of aggression)
 Aided and abetted subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7,
Crimes against humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed
against any civilian population…” (a) Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer
of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced disappearance of persons, (k)
Other inhumane acts.
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France
 Provided intelligence services and military instruction to mercenary forces to attack
the sovereign nation of Syria.
 Aided and abetted the illegal transfer of armaments and other lethal weaponry.
 Contributed to the “planning, preparation, initiation or execution” of an act of
aggression which by its character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the
Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2), Crime of aggression)
 Aided and abetted subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7,
Crimes against humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed
against any civilian population…” (a) Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer
of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced disappearance of persons, (k)
Other inhumane acts.
Great Britain
 Provided intelligence services and military instruction to mercenary forces to attack
the sovereign nation of Syria.
 Conspired with CIA to conceal from the U.S. Congress weapons illegal transfers from
Libya to Syria
 Contributed to the “planning, preparation, initiation or execution” of an act of
aggression which by its character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the
Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2), Crime of aggression)
 Aided and abetted subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7,
Crimes against humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed
against any civilian population…” (a) Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer
of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced disappearance of persons, (k)
Other inhumane acts.
Romania
 Secondary malefactor. Provided weapons for use by illegal mercenaries to overthrow
the duly established government of Syria.
 Contributed to the “planning, preparation, initiation or execution” of an act of
aggression which by its character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the
Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2), Crime of aggression)
 Aided and abetted subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7,
Crimes against humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed
against any civilian population…” (a) Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer
of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced disappearance of persons, (k)
Other inhumane acts.

Principal Accused:
United States of America
Turkey
Saudi Arabia
Qatar
Jordan*

Accessory Accused:
Belgium*
Bulgaria*
Croatia*
France*
Great Britain*
Romania*

* State Party to Rome Statute
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E. SUMMARY OF CHARGES
In accordance with the Rome Statute, Article 25, Individual Criminal Responsibility, the
names and capacities of the individuals shown below are specifically charged with flagrantly
violating the letter and spirit of the law that constrains civilized nations from committing
crimes against humanity and aggression. Importantly, Article 27, Irrelevance of Official
Capacity, renders a truly democratic and humanistic approach to the enforcement of the
Rome Statute. Not only are all people equal under the law, no person or persons, no matter
how important and prestigious, is above the law. A cat may not only look at a king, but can
also file a criminal complaint against the monarch. From the lowest to the highest, the
International Criminal Court embraces a truly democratic safeguard for humanity. No
immunities or special treatment are allowed under national or international law for those
brought before the Court. No doubt to George Orwell’s delight, there is indeed a place in this
world where no one person is more equal than others, to wit, the International Criminal
Court. The Complainant understands that there may well be lesser included offenses that
might be deemed chargeable. Accordingly, it is also understood that the generality of the
following charges are a consequence of the evidence now extant. Thus, there may well be a
modification, extenuation or heightening in the seriousness of the crimes ultimately charged.
In that spirit and resolve, and well aware that a thorough investigation by the Prosecutor
must and should ensue, the Complainant accuses the following individuals accordingly:

ACCUSED: UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Barack Hussein Obama
President of the United States, 21 January 2009-present
Date of Birth: August 4, 1961
Place of Birth: Honolulu, Hawaii
Nationality: American

CHARGES:


Responsible for the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

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Hillary Rodham Clinton
US Secretary of State, 21 January 2009-1 February 2013
Date of Birth: October 26, 1947
Place of Birth: Chicago, Illinois
Nationality: American

CHARGES:


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

John Forbes Kerry
US Secretary of State, 1 February 2013-present
Date of Birth: December 11, 1943
Place of Birth: Aurora, Colorado
Nationality: American

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

John Owen Brennan
Director of CIA, 8 March 2013-present
Date of Birth: September 22, 1955
Place of Birth: North Bergen, New Jersey
Nationality: American

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2), Crime of
aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against humanity,
paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a) Murder, (b)
Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced disappearance of
persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

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Michael Joseph Morell
Acting Director of the CIA, 9 November 2012 – 8 March 2013
Date of Birth: September 4, 1958
Place of Birth: Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio
Nationality: American

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2), Crime of
aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against humanity,
paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a) Murder, (b)
Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced disappearance of
persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

David Howell Petraeus
Director of CIA, 6 September 2011 – 9 November 2012
Date of Birth: November 7, 1952
Place of Birth: Cornwall-on-Hudson, New York
Nationality: American

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…”
(a) Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

Leon Edward Panetta
Director of CIA, 13 February 2009 – 30 June 2011
Date of Birth: June 28, 1938
Place of Birth: Monterey, California
Nationality: American

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

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ACCUSED: TURKEY
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
ex-Prime Minister now President of Turkey
14 March 2003-present
Date of Birth: 26 February 1954
Place of Birth: Istanbul
Nationality: Turkish
CHARGES


Responsible for the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

Ahmet Davutoğlu
ex-Foreign Minister now Prime Minister of Turkey
Date of Birth: 26 February 1959
Place of Birth: Taşkent,
Konya Province, Turkey
Nationality: Turkish
CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

Hakan Fidan
Director of Turkish Intelligence (M.I.T.), 27 May 2010-present
Date of Birth: 1968
Place of Birth: Ankara
Nationality: Turkish
CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

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ACCUSED: SAUDI ARABIA
Abdullah bin Abdulaziz
King of Saudia Arabia, 1 August 2005-present
Date of Birth: 1 August 1924
Place of Birth:
Nationality: Saudi

CHARGES


Responsible for the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

Prince Saud al-Faisal
Foreign Minister of Saudi Arabia, 13 October 1975-present
Date of Birth: 2 January 1940
Place of Birth:
Nationality: Saudi

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

ACCUSED: QATAR
Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
Emir of Qatar, 25 June 2013-present
Date of Birth: 3June 1980
Place of Birth:
Nationality: Qatari
CHARGES


Responsible for the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

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Abdullah bin Nasser bin Khalifa Al Thani
Prime Minister of Qatar, 26 June 2013-present
Date of Birth: 1959
Place of Birth:
Nationality: Qatari
CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
Ex-Emir of Qatar, 27 June 1995-25 June 2013
Date of Birth: 1952
Place of Birth:
Nationality: Qatari
CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

ACCUSED: JORDAN
Abdullah II ibn al-Hussein
King of Jordan, 7 February 1999-present
Date of Birth: 30 January 1962
Place of Birth: Amman
Nationality: Jordanian

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression
which by its character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United
Nations. (Article 8 (2), Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes
against humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian
population…” (a) Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h)
Persecution, (Enforced disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

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Abdullah Ensour
Prime Minister of Jordan, October 2012-present
Date of Birth: 20 January 1939
Place of Birth: Salt
Nationality: Jordanian

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts .

ACCUSED: BELGIUM
Elio Di Rupo
Prime Minister of Belgium, 6 December 2011-present
Date of Birth: 18 July 1951
Place of Birth: Morlanwelz, Wallonia
Nationality: Belgian

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

ACCUSED: BULGARIA
Boyko Borisov
Prime Minister of Bulgaria, 27 July 2009 – 13 March 2013
Date of Birth: 13 June 1959
Place of Birth: Bankya
Nationality: Bulgarian

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

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Marin Raykov Nikolov
Acting Prime Minister of Bulgaria, 13 March 2013 – 29 May 2013
Date of Birth: 17 December 1960
Place of Birth: Washington, D.C., USA
Nationality: Bulgarian

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

Plamen Vasilev Oresharski
Prime Minister of Bulgaria, 29 May 2013 – 6 August 2014
Date of Birth: 21 February 1960
Place of Birth: Dupnista
Nationality: Bulgarian
CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

ACCUSED: CROATIA
Ivo Josipović
President of Croatia, 19 February 2010-present
Date of Birth: 28 August 1957
Place of Birth: Zagreb
Nationality: Croatian
CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

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Zoran Milanović
Prime Minister of Croatia, 23 December 2011-present
Date of Birth: 30 October 1966
Place of Birth:
Nationality: Croatian

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

ACCUSED: FRANCE
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande
President of France, 15 May 2012-present
Date of Birth: 12 August 1954
Place of Birth: Rouen
Nationality: French

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

ACCUSED: GREAT BRITAIN
David William Donald Cameron
Prime Minister of England, 11 May 2010-presnet
Date of Birth: 9 October 1966
Place of Birth: London
Nationality: English

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

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ACCUSED: ROMANIA
Traian Băsescu
President of Romania, 27 August 2012-present
Date of Birth: 4 November 1951
Place of Birth: Basarabi
Nationality: Romanian
CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

Victor-Viorel Ponta
Prime Minister, 7 May 2012-present
Date of Birth: 20 September 1972
Place of Birth: Bucharest
Nationality: Romanian

CHARGES


Aided and abetted the planning, preparation, initiation and execution of an act of aggression which by its
character and scale constitutes a manifest violation of the Charter of the United Nations. (Article 8 (2),
Crime of aggression)



Aided and abetted the subsequent crimes against humanity. Rome Statute, Article 7, Crimes against
humanity, paragraph 1, “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population…” (a)
Murder, (b) Extermination, (d) Forcible transfer of population, (f) Torture, (h) Persecution, (Enforced
disappearance of persons, (k) Other inhumane acts.

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G. CONCLUSION
Law and life are sacred things. Without the former, the latter is valueless and predatory.
Today, we approach that sad condition. When it doesn’t suit their immediate interest, nations
honor bound to abide by the humane purposes and principles of the Charter of the United
Nations blithely ignore their airy promises and attempt to destroy sovereign nations not to
their liking. Talk is cheap and bombs are loud and deadly.
Many nations, impressed with the idea of it all, have codified their support for and adherence
to a legal remedy to help prevent the most serious crimes of international concern, that is,
war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide. Importantly, they became signatories to
this legislation, the Rome Statute. What an important first step towards a more peaceful
world! Yet, while the ink was still damp, a few violated their obligations arising from this
Statute and provided rogue state, non-signatory aggressor nations with a full range of
accomplice services: weapons procurement, transportation, mercenary training camps and
shared intelligence operations. All of this was designed to aid and abet the perpetration of
war crimes against the Syrian Arab Republic. Employing violent, mercenary hordes, these
rogue states attacked their latest enemy–of-choice. And some State Parties bound together
by the Rome Statute acted as accomplices for the Criminal Cabal. What a grand, cowardly
new world we all inhabit!
And it will not stop. We see the purpose. Nothing is any longer mysterious. We see the
current Syrian catastrophe as the awful proof hurled in our faces by these criminal
aggressors, this Criminal Cabal. The law is ignored with impunity. Impunity, that sublimely
arrogant condition with respect to the law that the International Criminal Court seeks to end.
Justice has been slow in coming in this war-torn century. Lies and deceptions fuel barbaric,
murderous hordes on the payrolls of the great powers and their secretive intelligence
operators. Justice too long delayed is justice denied, said Martin Luther King almost fifty
years ago. Can we not arrest this rush to chaos, this deadly, immoral, illegal marathon of
aggression? Only the law can stop these deadly, dark powers. This court, the International
Criminal Court, is now the only judicial institution that can save the international community
that it has pledged to protect.
Without an investigation by the Prosecutor there can be no doubt that the result will be a
continuation of the absolute impunity of the Criminal Cabal. The gravest, most atrocious
crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court are flung in its face and in the face of humanity. To
do nothing is an even graver crime.
“Our problems are man-made, therefore they may be solved by man,” said John F. Kennedy
over a half-century ago, adding, “And man can be as big as he wants.” That is indeed the
question. We well know how low some specimens of humanity can stoop. But with the
courageous support and determination of the International Criminal Court we, the vast
majority of peace-loving members of the international community, can become a huge force
for international restraint and even peace.
Finally, it is respectfully requested that the International Criminal Court immediately issue
arrest warrants for the above name principal Accused in accordance with Rome Statute
Article 58(1)(a), Article 58(1)(b)(i), Article 58(1)(b)(ii), and Article 58(1)(b)(iii). The sooner the
better for all humankind. The sooner the better that the legal battle against impunity begins.

James C. Ryan. Ph.D.
Istanbul, Turkey
6 October 2014
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H. THE COMPLAINANT
James C. Ryan is a writer, an aggressive peace activist and a columnist for Aydınlık Daily,
an Istanbul-based newspaper. He is a 1962 graduate of the United States Military Academy
at West Point. In response to the war criminality of the Bush administration’s attack
preemptive attack on Iraq, he co-founded West Point Graduates Against the War
(http://wpgaw.org/) and Service Academy Graduates Against the War (http://sagaw.org/). He
holds graduate degrees in literature, economics, fiction writing (M.F.A) and a Ph.D. in the
Sociology of Literature. He has taught at Columbia University, the City College of New York,
and Istanbul’s Kadır Has University.

Oceania was at war with Eurasia: therefore Oceania had always been at war with Eurasia.
The enemy of the moment always represented absolute evil, and it followed that any past or
future agreement with him was impossible.
—George Orwell, 1984

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APPENDICES
1. Preamble: Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court……..

36

2. Foreign Fighters in Syria………………………………………………

37

3. Media Evidentiary Extracts (chronological)………………………….

39

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APPENDIX 1
Preamble: Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
PREAMBLE
The States Parties to this Statute,
Conscious that all peoples are united by common bonds, their cultures pieced
together in a shared heritage, and concerned that this delicate mosaic may be
shattered at any time,
Mindful that during this century millions of children, women and men have been
victims of unimaginable atrocities that deeply shock the conscience of humanity,
Recognizing that such grave crimes threaten the peace, security and well-being of
the world,
Affirming that the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as
a whole must not go unpunished and that their effective prosecution must be ensured
by taking measures at the national level and by enhancing international cooperation,
Determined to put an end to impunity for the perpetrators of these crimes and thus
to contribute to the prevention of such crimes,
Recalling that it is the duty of every State to exercise its criminal jurisdiction over
those responsible for international crimes,
Reaffirming the Purposes and Principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and
in particular that all States shall refrain from the threat or use of force against the
territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or in any other manner
inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations,
Emphasizing in this connection that nothing in this Statute shall be taken as
authorizing any State Party to intervene in an armed conflict or in the internal affairs
of any State,
Determined to these ends and for the sake of present and future generations, to
establish an independent permanent International Criminal Court in relationship
with the United Nations system, with jurisdiction over the most serious crimes of
concern to the international community as a whole,
Emphasizing that the International Criminal Court established under this Statute
shall be complementary to national criminal jurisdictions,
Resolved to guarantee lasting respect for and the enforcement of international
justice,
Have agreed as follows:

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APPENDIX 2, FOREIGN FIGHTERS IN SYRIA
Extracted from Foreign Fighters in Syria by Richard Barrett, The Soufan Group, June
2014, Pp. 13-14. http://en.calameo.com/read/000009779f631011a5baa
Note: State Party Signatories to Rome Statute are highlighted in yellow

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APPENDIX 3, Media Evidentiary Extracts (chronological)
Aggressive War: Supreme International Crime
International Clearing House, by Marjorie Cohn
11 September 2004
http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article7249.htm


Associate United States Supreme Court Justice Robert Jackson was the chief prosecutor at the
Nuremberg Tribunal. In his report to the State Department, Justice Jackson wrote: "No political or
economic situation can justify" the crime of aggression. He also said: "If certain acts in violation of
treaties are crimes they are crimes whether the United States does them or whether Germany does
them, and we are not prepared to lay down a rule of criminal conduct against others which we would not
be willing to have invoked against us."



Bush's war on Iraq is a war of aggression. "Aggression is the use of armed force by a state against the
sovereignty, territorial integrity or political independence of another state, or in any other manner
inconsistent with the Charter of the United Nations, as set out in this definition," according to General
Assembly Resolution 3314, passed in the wake of Vietnam.



The only two situations where the UN Charter permits the use of armed force against another state is in
self-defense, or when authorized by the Security Council.



Virtually every Western democracy has ratified the treaty of the International Criminal Court, except the
United States.



Bush knows that the Court will also punish war crimes.



Following the Holocaust, the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg called the waging of
aggressive war "essentially an evil thing . . . to initiate a war of aggression . . . is not only an
international crime; it is the supreme international crime differing only from other war crimes in that it
contains within itself the accumulated evil of the whole."



Nuremberg prosecutor Justice Jackson labeled the crime of aggression "the greatest menace of our
times." More than 50 years later, his words still ring true.



Marjorie Cohn, a contributing editor to t r u t h o u t, is a professor at Thomas Jefferson School of Law,
executive vice president of the National Lawyers Guild, and the U.S. representative to the executive
committee of the American Association of Jurists.

Pakistan: Dozens of Europeans in terror training
The Washington Post, by Kathy Gannon
October 3, 2010
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/03/AR2010100302119.html


A senior official of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence agency, or ISI, told The Associated Press that
there are believed to be "several dozen" people with European citizenship - many of Pakistani origin among the Islamic extremists operating in the lawless border area.



Britain's communications monitoring agency, the Government Communications Headquarters or GCHQ,
estimates there are as many as 20 British-born militants in the border area,



70 people have traveled from Germany to Pakistan and Afghanistan for paramilitary training, and that
about a third of them have returned to Germany



The official, who spoke on condition of anonymity because he was not supposed to talk about classified
information to the media, said foreigners in the area also include Chechens, Uzbeks, Arabs and Turks,
one of whom was a former F-16 pilot in the Turkish air force. "That shows you that some of the people
who are coming are very well educated," he said.

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Erdogan Receives Gaddafi Human Rights Prize
Tripoli Post
6 December 2010
http://www.tripolipost.com/articledetail.asp?c=1&i=5195


Erdogan said countries of the region could not turn their back to each other, and they could not remain
indifferent to each other's problems.



Turkey's prime minister said that Turkey was objecting to injustice and violence all around the world just
for the sake of humanity.



Erdogan said Turkey would never turn a blind eye to massacre of innocent people, particularly children,
with modern weapons, and Turkey would not remain silent and indifferent to violence in the world.



Erdogan said Turkey would continue to defend rights of people who faced injustice, violence and
invasion in the Middle East and the world.



Erdogan also said Turkey wanted peace and justice in its region and the world, and if there was peace,
compromise, stability and welfare, in the region, everybody would benefit from them.



The Al-Gaddafi International Prize for Human Rights is an annual prize founded by and named after
Libyan leader Muammar al-Gaddafi.

Libya: foreign mercenaries terrorising citizens
The Telegraph, By Adrian Blomfield, Salloum
February 23, 2011
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8343959/Libya-foreign-mercenariesterrorising-citizens.html


The mercenaries had been in action, repeatedly opened fire without warning on what he said were
peaceful civilian protesters, when Mr Ibrahim and his allies got news that reinforcements were travelling
into the city. The aircraft landed at the nearby Abruk military airport bringing with it a fresh cargo of
mercenaries.

UN Security Council Resolution 1970, Condemned use of lethal force, enacted sanctions
February 26, 2011
http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/2B57BBA2-07D9-4C35-B45E-EED275080E87/0/N1124558.pdf


Arms embargo, 9. Decides that all Member States shall immediately take the necessary measures to
prevent the direct or indirect supply, sale or transfer to the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, from or through their
territories or by their nationals, or using their flag vessels or aircraft, of arms and related materiel of all
types, including weapons and ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary equipment, and
spare parts for the aforementioned, and technical assistance, training, financial or other
assistance, related to military activities or the provision, maintenance or use of any arms and related
materiel, including the provision of armed mercenary personnel whether or not originating in their
territories…

[Turkish] PM rules out NATO intervention in Libya
Today’s Zaman
February 28, 2011
http://www.todayszaman.com/news-236953-pm-rules-out-nato-intervention-in-libya.html


PM Recep Tayyip Erdoğan on Monday firmly ruled out any NATO intervention in the Libyan crisis, while
he strongly criticized European countries due to their “double-standard” approach towards
developments in North Africa.



“What has NATO to do in Libya? NATO's intervention in Libya is out of the question. We are against
such a thing,” Erdoğan said in a speech delivered at a meeting organized by the Turkish-German
Chamber of Commerce and Industry (TD-IHK) in Hanover.



“We are not one of those who see oil when looking at the Middle East,” Erdoğan said.

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In Great Company: Erdogan Wins Gaddafi Human Rights Prize
Asbarez.com
March 2, 2011
http://asbarez.com/93789/in-great-company-erdogan-wins-gaddafi-human-rights-prize/


The absurdity of embattled Libyan leader Mommar Gadaffi’s reign has many dimensions, one which is
the “Al-Gaddafi International Prize for Human Rights,” which last November was awarded to none other
than his closer friend and ally, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan.



Not surprisingly, Erdogan was a holdout in international efforts and concerns regarding the Libyan
uprising against Gaddafi.

UN Security Council Resolution 1973
March 17, 2011
http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N11/268/39/PDF/N1126839.pdf?OpenElement


Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, Demands the immediate establishment of
a cease-fire and a complete end to violence and all attacks against, and abuses of, civilians;



Protection of civilians 4. Authorizes Member States that have notified the Secretary-General, acting
nationally or through regional organizations or arrangements, and acting in cooperation with the
Secretary-General, to take all necessary measures, notwithstanding paragraph 9 of resolution 1970
(2011), to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack…

Note: Paragraph 9 of resolution 1970, shown earlier, imposed an arms embargo. This was rescinded in
resolution 1973 for the “Protection of Civilians.”

Parliament OKs Turkey's involvement in Libya
The Oakland Press
March 24, 2011
http://www.theoaklandpress.com/general-news/20110324/parliament-oks-turkeys-involvement-in-libya


Turkey's parliament has authorized the government to participate in military operations in Libya,
including enforcing the no-fly zone.

Libya: Nato to control no-fly zone after France gives way to Turkey
The Guardian, by Ian Traynor in Brussels and Nicholas Watt
24 March 2011
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/mar/24/france-turkey-nato-libya


Rasmussen said that the 28 member nations have agreed to act in order to protect Libyan civilians from
attacks by forces loyal to Gaddafi.



Nato "assets" will be used to co-ordinate all aspects of the military campaign against Libya, including
enforcement of the no-fly zone, protecting civilians through air strikes and enforcing a UN arms
embargo.

Turkey and the War on Libya: Defusing another UN Time Bomb
Global Research, by Eric Wahlberg
March 31, 2011
http://www.globalresearch.ca/turkey-and-the-war-on-libya-defusing-another-un-time-bomb/24058


From the start, Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan dismissed the idea of a no-fly-zone as
“such nonsense. What does NATO have to do with Libya?”



US Ambassador to Turkey Francis Ricciardone said the US and Turkey share almost the same views on
military action in Libya, agreeing that the most important thing was to protect the people of Libya, and
that Turkey had a unique role in the region and a special expertise because of historical and cultural
reasons.

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He [Erdogan] warned that a drawn-out conflict risked turning the country into a “second Iraq” or “another
Afghanistan” with devastating repercussions both for Libya and the NATO states leading the
intervention.

Libyan Rebels Say They’re Being Sent Weapons
The New York Times, By ROD NORDLAND
April 16, 2011
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/17/world/africa/17libya.html?_r=2&


Libyan rebels in their eastern capital of Benghazi said they had begun receiving arms from abroad…



The rebel military leader, Gen. Abdel Fattah Younes, said Saturday in an interview with Al Arabiya, a
satellite news channel, that his forces had received weapons supplies from unidentified nations that
supported their uprising.



On Thursday, however, the emir of Qatar, Sheik Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, told CNN that his country
would provide weapons to the rebels and that deliveries of antitank weapons might already have
reached them. Qatar, along with Italy and France, has already recognized the rebels as the legitimate
government of Libya.

CIA Başkanı'ndan 'çok gizli' ziyaret (A Top Secret Visit from the Director of the CIA)
Sabah Gazete , by Yahya Bostan
April 26, 2011
http://www.sabah.com.tr/Gundem/2011/04/26/cia-baskanindan-cok-gizli-ziyaret


Buna göre ABD Merkezi Haberalma Teşkilatı (CIA) Başkanı Leon Panetta Mart ayı sonunda Türkiye'ye
sürpriz bir ziyaret gerçekleştirdi. Panetta'nın 5 gün süren Ankara ziyareti kamuoyundan sır gibi saklandı.
"Gizli Gizli" koduyla yapılan görüşmelerde CIA Başkanı ve heyeti kayıtlara "Çok Önemli Konuk" olarak
geçti.



CIA Başkanı Panetta'nın Ankara temaslarında Arap isyanları konusu ilk sırada yer aldı. Libya'ya "kriz",
Suriye'ye "kritik eşik" tanımlaması yapıldı.



Türkiye tarafından Suriye'ye ilişkin "Gizli Kod" olarak tanımlanan ayrıntılar da ele alındı. "Gizli Kod"un
Suriye'deki rejim değişikliğini ve Esad ailesinin can güvenliğinin sağlanmasını içerdiği belirtiliyor.



MİT Müsteşarı Hakan Fidan Eylül 2010 tarihinde Washington'a kritik bir ziyaret gerçekleştirdi.

Turkish Leader Says Qaddafi Must Step Down Immediately May 3, 2011
New York Times, By SEBNEM ARSU and KAREEM FAHIM
May 3, 2011
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/04/world/africa/04libya.html?pagewanted=all


In his harshest comments to date on the situation in Libya, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan of
Turkey, a regional power broker, told reporters here on Tuesday that Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi had
chosen “blood, tears, oppression” and that he must “immediately step down.”



The two countries began a visa agreement last year, allowing Libyan citizens to stay in Turkey for at
least three months without a visa and signaling a turn in diplomatic and business relations.

US policy on Syria 'depends on success in Libya'
BBC, by Kim Ghattas
24 May 2011
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-13529923


There is no suggestion whatsoever that anyone would consider military intervention in Syria but the US
and Europe, their hands full in Libya, are wary even of a purely diplomatic quagmire.



While the West decided it could never work with Col Gaddafi again, there would still be a willingness to
work with Mr Assad if he suddenly made concrete, genuine efforts towards dialogue and democracy.



"If we want to address Syria, we have to deal with Libya first," said the diplomat.

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La France a parachuté des armes aux rebelles libyens
Le Figaro, Philippe Gelie
Juin 28, 2011
http://www.lefigaro.fr/international/2011/06/28/01003-20110628ARTFIG00704-la-france-a-parachute-des-armesaux-rebelles-libyens.php


Constatant, au début du mois de mai, le risque d'impasse militaire, la France a décidé de procéder
directement à des parachutages d'armes dans le Djebel Nefousa : lance-roquettes, fusils d'assaut,
mitrailleuses et surtout missiles antichars Milan. Jusque-là, les armes acheminées aux rebelles
provenaient du Qatar et d'autres émirats du Golfe. Elles étaient convoyées par avion à Benghazi, siège
du Conseil national de transition (CNT) à l'Est, puis par bateau jusqu'au port de Misrata, ville côtière
prise en étau par les forces loyales au régime.

Turkey Recognizes Libyan Rebels, Gives $300 Million, AP Reports
Bloomberg, by Zaid Sabah and Kim Chipman
July 4, 2011
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-07-03/turkey-recognizes-libyan-rebels-gives-300-million-ap-reports.html


Turkey further bolstered the standing of Libyan opposition leaders by recognizing them as rightful
representatives of the war-torn nation, according to the Associated Press.



Turkish Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu said yesterday that his country gave Libya’s Transitional
National Council, a rebel group engaged in armed conflict with the ruling regime of Muammar Qaddafi,
$100 million and promised an additional $200 million, according to the AP.

Profit and Proliferation: A Special Report on Belgian Arms in the Arab Uprising, Part I
AT WAR New York Times, By DAMIEN SPLEETERS
April 5, 2012
http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/05/profit-and-proliferation-a-special-report-on-belgian-arms-in-the-arabuprising-part-i/


Belgium is one of Europe’s busiest exporters of small arms and light weapons. As late as 2010, the last
year for which publicly released data is available, 32 percent of the small-arms exports from the
European Union to the Middle East and North Africa originated in the small NATO state.



“A lot of Belgian weapons are now in circulation in Libya and probably elsewhere in West and East
Africa, exacerbating tensions and conflicts.”



That, in turn, has heightened concerns that Belgian weapons could factor significantly in another Arab
uprising: the intensifying conflict in Syria, where some nearby countries have expressed an interest in
actively arming the opposition.



As might be expected, the report was not positive about the general situation in Libya and suggested
that a weapons deal could breach criterion 2 (“the respect of human rights in the country of final
destination”) and criterion 7 (“the existence of a risk that the equipment will be diverted within the buyer
country or re-exported under undesirable conditions”) of the European Common Position on Arms
Sales.

Profit and Proliferation, Part 2: Will Belgian Arms End Up in Syria?
AT WAR New York Times, by DAMIEN SPLEETERS
April 6, 2012
http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/06/profit-and-proliferation-part-2-will-belgian-arms-end-up-insyria/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0


Belgium promised 225,000 euros (about $300,000) to an international program led by the United States
that is intended to secure the loose stock of heat-seeking anti-aircraft missiles in Libya. These weapons
were provided to Libya not by Belgium but by former Eastern bloc states.



But Belgium could be confronted with another problem in terms of small arms. Many Libyans say that
Qatar, France, Egypt and the United Arab Emirates provided Libyan rebels with weapons during the

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recent war. Some of these countries are FN Herstal customers, raising the question of whether Belgian
small arms, exported to countries that agreed not to re-export them, were nonetheless re-exported.


On Feb. 26, 2011, the United Nations voted the Resolution 1970, imposing an arms embargo in Libya.
Nevertheless, in the spring and summer of 2011, Qatar started shipping military material to the rebels in
Benghazi. Some of the weapons shipped by Qatar could well have been FN FAL assault rifles produced
in Belgium, according to anti-Qaddafi fighters who received them.



Several fighters said in interviews that their FN FALs were supplied by Qatar. Also, a Libyan operator
who worked at the Benina airport in Benghazi in April 2011 said he remembered crates from Qatar full of
Belgian FALs.



Switzerland, upon seeing military material it sold to Qatar in 2009 reappear in Libya in 2011, suspended
its arms-export licenses to Qatar from July to December 2011



The European Common Position on Arms Sales, adopted in 2008, stipulates that the selling country has
to assess “the existence of a risk that the equipment will be diverted within the buyer country or reexported under undesirable conditions.” Qatar, according to the Libyan fighters’ accounts, presents such
a risk, as it re-exported military goods to third parties without authorization.

C.I.A. Said to Aid in Steering Arms to Syrian Opposition
New York Times, by ERIC SCHMITT
June 21, 2012
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/21/world/middleeast/cia-said-to-aid-in-steering-arms-to-syrianrebels.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0


A small number of C.I.A. officers are operating secretly in southern Turkey, helping allies decide which
Syrian opposition fighters across the border will receive arms to fight the Syrian government, according
to American officials and Arab intelligence officers.



The weapons, including automatic rifles, rocket-propelled grenades, ammunition and some antitank
weapons, are being funneled mostly across the Turkish border by way of a shadowy network of
intermediaries including Syria’s Muslim Brotherhood and paid for by Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar,
the officials said.



Last month, these activists said, Turkish Army vehicles delivered antitank weaponry to the border,
where it was then smuggled into Syria.

Syria Crisis: Where Syrian Fighters Get Their Weapons From
Reuters, By Jonathan Saul and Mariam Karouny
July 13, 2012
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/13/syria-crisis-rebels-weapons_n_1670780.html


Syrian rebels are smuggling small arms into Syria through a network of land and sea routes involving
cargo ships and trucks moving through Turkey, Lebanon and Iraq, maritime intelligence and Free Syrian
Army (FSA) officers say.



"There are three gateways from where we are getting weapons and they are not secret - Lebanon,
Turkey and Iraq," an FSA officer in Syria said. "The weapons entering Turkey are by sea and in
containers."



"Certainly they are being sourced from the Black Sea area and are coming in by ship," a maritime
intelligence source said.



"Because of Bulgaria's gradual decrease of armed forces, the sell-off of arms equipment and the
deposition of ammunition, relatively smooth supplies for such deals can be ensured," the former official
said



Maritime security sources said consignments were most likely to be transported in ships to Turkey for
onward dispatch to rebels inside Syria. Ship containers are hard to track and seen throughout the world
as a security concern.

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Exclusive: Obama authorizes secret U.S. support for Syrian rebels
REUTERS BY MARK HOSENBALL
August 1, 2012
http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/01/us-usa-syria-obama-order-idUSBRE8701OK20120801


President Barack Obama has signed a secret order authorizing U.S. support for rebels seeking to
depose Syrian



President Bashar al-Assad and his government, U.S. sources familiar with the matter said. Obama's
order, approved earlier this year and known as an intelligence "finding," broadly permits the CIA and
other U.S. agencies to provide support that could help the rebels oust Assad.



A U.S. government source acknowledged that under provisions of the presidential finding, the United
States was collaborating with a secret command center operated by Turkey and its allies.



Last week, Reuters reported that, along with Saudi Arabia and Qatar, Turkey had established a secret
base near the Syrian border to help direct vital military and communications support to Assad's
opponents.



This "nerve center" is in Adana, a city in southern Turkey about 60 miles from the Syrian border, which
is also home to Incirlik, a U.S. air base where U.S. military and intelligence agencies maintain a
substantial presence.

Obama authorized covert support for Syrian rebels, sources say
CNN
August 2, 2012
http://edition.cnn.com/2012/08/01/us/syria-rebels-us-aid/


Last week, the U.S. Treasury Department approved a license allowing the Washington Syrian Support
Group to provide direct financial assistance to the Free Syrian Army. The Washington-based
representative of the Free Syrian Army is allowed to conduct financial transactions on the rebel group's
behalf but is not allowed to send military equipment. During the war in Libya, Obama signed a similar
directive authorizing covert assistance for rebels in the battle against Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi.

Obama strikes out: Photograph of President holding baseball bat while on the phone causes outrage in
Turkey
Daily Mail
August 5, 2012
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2183900/Barack-Obama-President-holds-baseball-BAT-phone-Turkish-PM-TayyipErdogan.html


President Obama struck out with Turkey this week after the White House released a photo showing the
leader of the free world holding a baseball bat while talking on the phone with the Turkish prime
minister.



When asked about possible hidden meanings in the photo, White House secretary Jay Carney said that
the president was an avid baseball fan and long-time supporter of the Chicago White Sox.



White House spokeswoman Caitlin Hayden said in a brief written statement on Friday that her
department had seen the commentary and speculation about the photo in the Turkish media.



‘We released the photo with only one purpose in mind, to highlight the President's continuing close
relationship with Prime Minister Erdogan and draw attention to the important conversation they had
about the worsening situation in Syria,’ she said.

Darnell Gitti-(TAMAMI)
Aydinlik
August 8. 2012
http://www.aydinlikgazete.com/mansetler/14303-darnell-gitti.html

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Türkiye’deki Suriyeli teröristleri yöneten ABD Başkonsolosu Daria Darnell’in görev yeri değişti. Aydınlık,
Suriyeli töreristlerin İncirlik Üssü’ndeki Kozmik Kriz Merkezi’nden idare edildiği bu merkezinde Darnell
tarafından yönetildiğini yazmıştı.

Fars Haber Ajansı Aydınlık’ın haberini dünyaya duyurdu
Aydinlik
August 9, 2012
http://www.aydinlikgazete.com/mansetler/14273-fars-haber-ajansi-aydinlikin-haberini-dunyaya-duyurdu.html


Aydınılık’ın “Suriyeli teröristler İncirlik’te eğitiliyor” haberini dünyaya duyurdu. “Suriye’yi Türkiye’nin
karıştırdığı imajının arkasından ABD çıktı.. ABD bütün kumpasların baş aktörü.. ABD Türkiye’yi diğer
İslam ülkeleri nezdinde bitiriyor..” ifadelerinini kullanıldığı haberde şöyle denildi:



Suriye’de iç karışıklar başlatıldıktan sonra İncirlik Üssü’nde, 5000 muhalif önder ve militan ile diğer
Suriyeliler’e askeri eğitim verildi.



Süreci, ABD’nin Adana Başkonsolosu Daria Darnell Yönetiyor... Aydınlık’ta yer alan habere göre
“Suriyeli muhalifler, İncirlik Üssü’ndeki Kozmik Kriz Merkezi’nden sevk ve idare ediliyor. Suriye’deki terör
olaylarının başlamasından bu yana süreci bizzat ABD’nin Adana Başkonsolosu Daria Darnell yönetiyor.

Rebel Groups in Syria Make Framework for Military
New York Times, by NEIL MacFARQUHAR and HWAIDA SAAD
December 7, 2012
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/08/world/middleeast/rebel-groups-in-syria-make-framework-for-military.html


ANTALYA, Turkey — Military commanders of the main Free Syrian Army units from all
over Syria agreed Friday to a unified command structure, bowing to intense pressure from Qatar and
Saudi Arabia, who the fighters said promised more advanced weapons once a central military council
was in place.



fierce arguments from the meeting occasionally overflowed into the marble lobby of a luxury hotel here,
where the rebel commanders with their beards, leather jackets and track suits made a sharp contrast to
golfers and other guests.



Rebel commanders said that three representatives from the Central Intelligence Agency — one from
headquarters, one from Turkey and another from Jordan — attended their discussions here but did not
comment.



…there is a growing sense that extremist jihadist forces are beginning to eclipse the rest of the
opposition with better weapons and fighters.



The pivotal countries present were Qatar — which provides most of the financing for coalition efforts —
Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan and Turkey, commanders said.

The US Is Openly Sending Heavy Weapons From Libya To Syrian Rebels
Business Insider, GEOFFREY INGERSOLL AND MICHAEL B KELLEY
December 9, 2012
http://www.businessinsider.com/obama-admin-admits-to-covertly-sending-heavy-weapons-to-syrian-rebels-201212


The Obama administration has decided to launch a covert operation to send heavy weapons to Syrian
rebels, Christina Lamb of The Sunday Times of London reports. Diplomatic sources told the Sunday
Times that the U.S. "bought weapons from the stockpiles of Libya's former dictator Muammar Gaddafi."
The heavy arms include mortars, rocket propelled grenades, anti-tank missiles and the controversial
anti-aircraft heat-seeking SA-7 missiles, which are integral to countering Bashar Al-Assad's bombing
campaign.



The administration has said that the previously hidden CIA operation in Benghazi involved finding,
repurchasing and destroying heavy weaponry looted from Libyan government arsenals, but in October
we reported evidence indicating that U.S. agents — particularly murdered ambassador Chris Stevens —
were at least aware of heavy weapons moving from Libya to jihadist Syrian rebels.

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On Sept. 6 a Libyan ship carrying 400 tons of weapons for Syrian rebels docked in southern
Turkey. The ship's captain was "a Libyan from Benghazi" who worked for the new Libyan government.

Saudis Step Up Help for Rebels in Syria With Croatian Arms
New York Times, By C. J. CHIVERS and ERIC SCHMITT
February 25, 2013
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/26/world/middleeast/in-shift-saudis-are-said-to-arm-rebels-insyria.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0


Saudi Arabia has financed a large purchase of infantry weapons from Croatia and quietly funneled them
to antigovernment fighters in Syria



The weapons began reaching rebels in December via shipments shuttled through Jordan, officials said,



Officials said multiple planeloads of weapons have left Croatia since December, when many Yugoslav
weapons, previously unseen in the Syrian civil war, began to appear in videos posted by rebels on
YouTube.



Officials familiar with the transfers said the arms were part of an undeclared surplus in Croatia remaining
from the 1990s Balkan wars. One Western official said the shipments included “thousands of rifles and
hundreds of machine guns” and an unknown quantity of ammunition.



“I can’t imagine bigger quantities of weapons being moved without state sanctioning,” he said. “It is not
impossible, but it is just very improbable.”



An official in Washington said the possibility of the transfers from the Balkans was broached last
summer, when a senior Croatian official visited Washington and suggested to American officials that
Croatia had many weapons available should anyone be interested in moving them to Syria’s rebels



Both Ukrainian-made rifle cartridges that had been purchased by Saudi Arabia and Swiss-made hand
grenades that had been provided to the United Arab Emirates were found by journalists to be in rebel
possession.



And Belgian-made rifles of a type not known to have been purchased by Syria’s military have been
repeatedly seen in rebel hands, suggesting that one of Belgium’s previous rifle customers had
transferred the popular weapons to the rebels.



The newspaper said the United States, Croatia’s main political and military ally, was possibly the
intermediary, and mentioned four sightings at Pleso Airport of Ilyushin 76 aircraft owned by Jordan
International Air Cargo. It said such aircraft had been seen on Dec. 14 and 23, Jan. 6 and Feb. 18.

Arab League support for arming Syrian rebels 'logical'
France 24
March 8, 2013
http://www.france24.com/en/20130308-syria-arab-league-arming-rebel-forces-opposition-coalition/


Arab League has stepped up its support for the opposition Syrian National Coalition and given the goahead for member nations to arm the rebel forces fighting President Bashar al-Assad’s regime.

Report: Americans training Syria rebels in Jordan
Reuters
March 10, 2013
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4354749,00.html


Americans are training Syrian anti-government fighters in Jordan, the German weekly Der Spiegel said
on Sunday, quoting what it said were participants and organizers.



Britain's Guardian newspaper also reported that US trainers were assisting Syrian rebels in Jordan.
British and French instructors were also participating in the US-led effort, the Guardian said on
Saturday, citing Jordanian security sources.

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Jordanian intelligence services are involved in the program



Saudi Arabia and Qatar are widely believed to be providing weapons to the rebels, and Arab League
ministers decided on Wednesday to let member nations arm them.

CIA monitors potential terrorists in Syria
YNET
March 16, 2013
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4357006,00.html


According to US officials, the CIA has started gathering intelligence on Islamist extremists in preparation
for potential drone strikes, the LA Times reported Saturday.



As part of the CIA's efforts, agency officials have met with Syrian rebels in Turkey and Jordan.

Report: CIA provides intelligence to Syrian rebels
AFP, Yitzhak Benhorin
March 23, 2013
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4360110,00.html


The US Central Intelligence Agency has been feeding information to select rebel fighters in Syria to try
to make them more effective against government troops, The Wall Street Journal reported on Saturday.



The CIA has sent officers to Turkey to help vet rebels who receive arms shipments from Gulf allies, the
report said.



In Iraq, the CIA has been directed by the White House to work with elite counterterrorism units



Syrian opposition commanders said the CIA had been working with British, French and Jordanian
intelligence services to train rebels in the use of various kinds of weapons, the paper said.



The move comes as the al Nusra Front, the main al-Qaeda-linked group operating in Syria, is deepening
its ties to the terrorist organization's central leadership in Pakistan, The Journal said.

Arms Airlift to Syria Rebels Expands, With Aid From C.I.A.
New York Times, by By C. J. CHIVERS and ERIC SCHMITT
March 24, 2013
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/25/world/middleeast/arms-airlift-to-syrian-rebels-expands-with-ciaaid.html?pagewanted=all


With help from the C.I.A., Arab governments and Turkey have sharply increased their military aid to
Syria’s opposition fighters in recent months, expanding a secret airlift of arms and equipment for the
uprising against President Bashar al-Assad, according to air traffic data, interviews with officials in
several countries and the accounts of rebel commanders.



It has grown to include more than 160 military cargo flights by Jordanian, Saudi and Qatari military-style
cargo planes landing at Esenboga Airport near Ankara, and, to a lesser degree, at other Turkish and
Jordanian airports.



From offices at secret locations, American intelligence officers have helped the Arab governments shop
for weapons, including a large procurement from Croatia



The Turkish government has had oversight over much of the program, down to affixing transponders to
trucks ferrying the military goods through Turkey so it might monitor shipments as they move by land
into Syria, officials said.



“The intensity and frequency of these flights,” he added, are “suggestive of a well-planned and
coordinated clandestine military logistics operation.”



On a string of nights from April 26 through May 4, a Qatari Air Force C-17 — a huge American-made
cargo plane — made six landings in Turkey, at Esenboga Airport. By Aug. 8 the Qataris had made 14

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more cargo flights. All came from Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar, a hub for American military logistics in the
Middle East.


Qatar has been an active arms supplier — so much so that the United States became concerned about
some of the Islamist groups that Qatar has armed.



David H. Petraeus, the C.I.A. director until November, had been instrumental in helping to get this
aviation network moving and had prodded various countries to work together on it.



White House officials were regularly briefed on the shipments.



Through the fall, the Qatari Air Force cargo fleet became even more busy, running flights almost every
other day in October.



In November, three Royal Jordanian Air Force C-130s landed in Esenboga, in a hint at what would
become a stepped-up Jordanian and Saudi role.



…two other Jordanian cargo planes began making a round-trip run between Amman, the capital of
Jordan, and Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, where, officials from several countries said, the aircraft were
picking up a large Saudi purchase of infantry arms from a Croatian-controlled stockpile.



… records show that two Jordanian Ilyushins bearing the logo of the Jordanian International Air Cargo
firm but flying under Jordanian military call signs made a combined 36 round-trip flights between Amman
and Croatia from December through February. The same two planes made five flights between Amman
and Turkey this January.



Qatari flights continued and the Royal Saudi Air Force began a busy schedule, too — making at least 30
C-130 flights into Esenboga from mid-February to early March this year…



The director of cargo for Jordanian International Air Cargo, Muhammad Jubour, insisted on March 7 that
his firm had no knowledge of any flights to or from Croatia. “This is all lies,” he said. “We never did any
such thing.”

US to double aid to Syrian rebels following assurances
The Telegraph by Richard Spencer
21 April 2013
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/10008303/US-to-double-aid-to-Syrian-rebelsfollowing-assurances.html


However, while Saudi Arabia and Qatar are both known to be channeling arms to the rebels, there was
no indication that the United States, Britain or other western allies might follow suit.



“Jordanian International Air Cargo,” the official said, “is a front company for Jordan’s air force.”



Asked why his employer’s Web site still displayed images of two Ilyushin-76MFs and text claiming they
were part of the company fleet, Mr. Jubour had no immediate reply. That night the company’s Web site
was taken down.

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Arab League rejects UN call to stop arming Syrian rebels
The Times of Israel by Edith M. Lederer
April 23, 2013
http://www.timesofisrael.com/arab-league-rejects-un-call-to-stop-arming-syrian-rebels/


Qatar has led appeals to provide rebel fighters more heavy weapons



Elaraby denied that recent Arab League decisions are hindering Brahimi’s work. “Since the government
receives weapons, the opposition receives weapons. I don’t think that’s a hurdle,” he said. “The
government is not controlling the country, it is a reality. Some 40 percent of the country is not under the
government’s control.”

Free Syrian Army rebels defect to Islamist group Jabhat al-Nusra
The Guardian, Mona Mahmood, Ian Black
May 8 2013
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/may/08/free-syrian-army-rebels-defect-islamist-group


Syria's main armed opposition group, the Free Syrian Army (FSA), is losing fighters and capabilities to
Jabhat al-Nusra, an Islamist organisation with links to al-Qaida that is emerging as the best-equipped,
financed and motivated force fighting Bashar al-Assad's regime. Evidence of the growing strength of alNusra, gathered from Guardian interviews with FSA commanders across Syria, underlines the dilemma
for the US, Britain and other governments as they ponder the question of arming anti-Assad rebels.



FSA men have joined al-Nusra in the last few months, mainly because of a lack of weapons and
ammunition.



Al-Nusra has members serving undercover with FSA units so they can spot potential recruits, according
to Abu Hassan of the FSA's al-Tawhid Lions brigade.
The US, which has outlawed al-Nusra as a terrorist group, has hesitated to arm the FSA, while the
western and Gulf-backed Syrian Opposition Coalition has tried to assuage concerns by promising strict
control over weapons. "





Western governments say they are aware of the al-Nusra problem, which is being monitored by
intelligence agencies, but they are uncertain about its extent.



"If you join al-Nusra, there is always a gun for you but many of the FSA brigades can't even provide
bullets for their fighters," complained Abu Tamim, an FSA man who joined Jabhat al-Nusra in Idlib
province.

Syria: Frequency of abductions and extortion of civilians committed by rebel groups
IRB - Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
30 May 2013
http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/254206/378708_de.html


AFP reports that extortion by rebel groups "has become rampant" (2 Nov. 2012).



Reuters reports that businessmen and industrialists in Aleppo have been subject to extortion by rebel
groups (24Oct. 2012).



According to Voice of America (VOA), a news broadcaster funded by the US government (n.d.), the
Farouq battalions in the north have a reputation for extortion, among other crimes (28 Mar. 2013). This
rebel group reportedly controls the "lucrative" border crossings to Turkey at Tal Abyad and Bab al Hawa
(VOA 28 Mar. 2013).



Several sources indicate that civilian supporters of the government have been victims of kidnapping
(GCR2P 15Mar. 2013, 2; AFP 4 Apr. 2013).



According to a Human Rights Watch researcher, as reported by AFP, religious minorities are more
vulnerable to kidnappings, because they are viewed as being government supporters (4 Apr. 2013).

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