Love and Math The Heart of Hidden Realit .pdf

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Title: Love and Math
Author: Frenkel, Edward

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Love and Math

LOVE and MATH
The Heart of Hidden Reality

Edward Frenkel

BASIC BOOKS
A Member of the Perseus Books Group
New York

Copyright © 2013 by Edward Frenkel
Published by Basic Books, A Member of the Perseus Books Group
All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book
may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except
in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. For information,
address Basic Books, 250 West 57th Street, 15th Floor, New York, NY 10107-1307.
Books published by Basic Books are available at special discounts for bulk
purchases in the United States by corporations, institutions, and other organizations.
For more information, please contact the Special Markets Department at the
Perseus Books Group, 2300 Chestnut Street, Suite 200, Philadelphia, PA 19103,
or call (800) 810-4145, ext. 5000, or e-mail special.markets@perseusbooks.com.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Frenkel, Edward, 1968– author.
Love and math : the heart of hidden reality / Edward Frenkel.
pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-465-05074-1 (hardback) – ISBN 978-0-465-06995-8 (e-book)
1. Frenkel, Edward, 1968– 2. Mathematicians–United States–Biography.
3. Mathematics–Miscellanea. I. Title.
QA29.F725F74 2013
510.92–dc23
[B]
2013017372
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

For my parents

Contents
Preface

1

A Guide for the Reader

8

1 A Mysterious Beast

9

2 The Essence of Symmetry

15

3 The Fifth Problem

28

4 Kerosinka

39

5 Threads of the Solution

45

6 Apprentice Mathematician

56

7 The Grand Unified Theory

70

8 Magic Numbers

80

9 Rosetta Stone

96

10 Being in the Loop

108

11 Conquering the Summit

125

12 Tree of Knowledge

132

13 Harvard Calling

141

14 Tying the Sheaves of Wisdom

152

15 A Delicate Dance

166

16 Quantum Duality

184

17 Uncovering Hidden Connections

204

18 Searching for the Formula of Love

229

Epilogue

242

Acknowledgments

245

Notes

247

Glossary of Terms

283

Index

287

Preface
There’s a secret world out there. A hidden parallel universe of beauty and
elegance, intricately intertwined with ours. It’s the world of mathematics. And
it’s invisible to most of us. This book is an invitation to discover this world.
Consider this paradox: On the one hand, mathematics is woven in the very
fabric of our daily lives. Every time we make an online purchase, send a text
message, do a search on the Internet, or use a GPS device, mathematical formulas and algorithms are at play. On the other hand, most people are daunted by
math. It has become, in the words of poet Hans Magnus Enzensberger, “a blind
spot in our culture – alien territory, in which only the elite, the initiated few
have managed to entrench themselves.” It’s rare, he says, that we “encounter
a person who asserts vehemently that the mere thought of reading a novel, or
looking at a picture, or seeing a movie causes him insufferable torment,” but
“sensible, educated people” often say “with a remarkable blend of defiance and
pride” that math is “pure torture” or a “nightmare” that “turns them off.”
How is this anomaly possible? I see two main reasons. First, mathematics
is more abstract than other subjects, hence not as accessible. Second, what we
study in school is only a tiny part of math, much of it established more than a
millennium ago. Mathematics has advanced tremendously since then, but the
treasures of modern math have been kept hidden from most of us.
What if at school you had to take an “art class” in which you were only
taught how to paint a fence? What if you were never shown the paintings of
Leonardo da Vinci and Picasso? Would that make you appreciate art? Would
you want to learn more about it? I doubt it. You would probably say something
like this: “Learning art at school was a waste of my time. If I ever need to have
my fence painted, I’ll just hire people to do this for me.” Of course, this sounds
ridiculous, but this is how math is taught, and so in the eyes of most of us it
becomes the equivalent of watching paint dry. While the paintings of the great
masters are readily available, the math of the great masters is locked away.


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