16 Introduction to Genetics (PDF)

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Title: Chapter 7: A View of the Cell
Author: Hoggard

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of Traits

The Relationship Among Genes
and Chromosomes

• Genes on chromosomes carry
information for physical expression of

• Genetics: study of Heredity, or the
passing of characteristics from parents to
• Traits: Inherited characteristics.

Gregor Mendel

Father of Genetics
Austrian monk
Studied traits in garden
• Explained patterns of

Mendels Observations
• P generation = Parents
white crossed with purple

• F1 generation = 1st
generation of offspring:
All purple
• F2 generation = 2nd
generation of offspring:
75%purple, 25% white

Mendels Laws
1. Law of Unit Factors
2 factors control each trait
• Alleles- alternate forms of genes
• plant height:
tall or short
• flower color:
white or purple

Mendels Alleles

Allele Combinations
• Homozygous individuals have 2 of
the same allele
– 2 tall alleles
– 2 white alleles
• Heterozygous individuals have 2
different alleles
– 1 tall allele and 1 short allele
– 1 white allele and 1 purple allele

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