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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010

Using RFID to Enhance Mobile
Banking Security
Zakaria Saleh

Izzat Alsmadi

MIS Department, IT faculty
Yarmouk University
Irbid, Jordan
zzaatreh@yu.edu.jo

CIS Department, IT faculty
Yarmouk University
Irbid, Jordan
ialsmadi@yu.edu.jo

Abstract— Mobile banking is introducing a new generation of
location-independent financial services using mobile terminals.
This facilitates allowing users to make payments, check
balances, transfer money between accounts and generate
statements of recent transactions on their cellular phones.
While providing , anywhere, anytime banking to the user, the
service should be secure and security needs to be implemented
at various levels, starting from the SIM card security, mobile
software security, and secure customer access to banking
services. Banks rely on users having their mobile phones with
them all the time. Hence, as a mean for security measures,
banks can send alerts, anytime, in order to provide an
enhanced security and services. This paper analyzes the
security issues in Mobile Banking, and proposes an improved
security to the mobile banking services using RFID.
Key words: Mobile banking, security, RFID, Wireless
communication, Pervasive Computing, smart cards, and
contactless payment, wireless security, and e-commerce.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Mobile banking is set to reform the way people manage
their money, and while Internet banking brought banks to the
desktop, the Mobile banking is bringing it right into users’
pockets. However, in an age of uncontrolled cyber crime,
security is the primary concern. The remarkable increase in
cellular phone usage has been followed by an increase in
mobile fraud. Many users are concerned about the security
aspect when carrying out financial transactions over the
mobile network.
Mobile is often the only means of access available for
millions of users in many countries. A report published by
IMS [62] on Mobile Applications and Services indicates that
mobile penetration in many developing markets is far higher
than that of banking or fixed line infrastructure. However,
lack of security is seen as the biggest deterrent to the

widespread adoption of mobile financial services. KPMG
LLP examined trends in the use of mobile technology of
more than 4,000 people in 19 countries worldwide, where the
91 % respondents said they had never tried banking through
a mobile device, and 48% (those respondents who have not
conducted banking through a mobile device) cited security
and privacy as the primary reason. This research will
investigate the current security within mobile banking while
focusing on users’ authentication, and propose a model that
will further enhance access security using RFID.
What is mobile banking?
The Mobile Banking environment requires both a Bank
and a Mobile Network Operator (MNO) to deliver a
Transactional or informational banking service to a consumer
through the mobile phone. The implementation of wireless
communication technologies may result in more complicated
information security problems [23]. In developing countries,
the role of the mobile phone is more extensive than in
developed countries, as it helps bridge the digital divide.
Even with initiatives like the One Laptop per Child (OLPC),
the mobile penetration in many developing markets is far
higher than that of banking or fixed line infrastructure [62].
People carry their mobile phones at all times, and services
beyond voice communication are expected by users all over
the globe. Users desire the same kind of services they get
through an Internet-connected PC to be available through
their mobile phone.
Mobile banking allows users to perform everyday
banking functions using the mobile phone. All the major
banks offer some type of mobile service for bill payment,
funds transfers, checking balances, and receiving alerts [19].
Financial institution use mobile banking in one of different
modes:
• Mobile Text Banking: In their simplest form, mobile
banking services enable enables users to retrieve information

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010

about bank accounts from a mobile phone using Short
Message Service (SMS) .
• Mobile Web/Client Banking: Using a mobile phone’s
data connection, this service provides users with an interface
and a login with password feature.

different frequencies, but generally the most common are
low-frequency (around 125 KHz), high-frequency (13.56
MHz) and ultra-high-frequency or UHF (860-960 MHz).
Microwave (2.45 GHz). The RFID operating frequencies and
associated characteristics are illustrated in table 1[17].

Mobile Text Banking
SMS Based applications may be the simplest form of
mobile banking implementation [18]. The solution is not
intuitive and has no aesthetic value but is as simple as
sending an SMS. SMS is used primarily as an informational
banking tool as opposed to transactional banking. However,
SMS can provide a pro-active functionality to send brief text
messages to customers ensuring that the relevant information
is provided to the user at the “right” place, at the “right” time
[21]. The reason being that transactional banking requires
certain levels of security, and while SMS is encrypted using
the standard GSM encryption across the air, the SMS
message is store in plaintext format, and the current SMS
banking design has neglected the fact that some employees
working for the cellular service provider can have access to
the transmitted message at the service stations. Therefore
using plaintext SMS message to send security details is not
sufficiently secure [20]

TABLE

I:

RFID

OPERATING

FREQUENCIES

AND

ASSOCIATED

CHARACTERISTICS.

Band
Frequency
Typical
RFID

Low
frequency

High
frequency

Ultra high frequency

Microwave

30–300kHz
125–134
kHz

3–30MHz

300 MHz–3GHz

2–30 GHz

13.56 MHz

433 MHz or

2.45 GHz

Frequencies
Approximate

865 – 956MHz
2.45 GHz
433 MHz = up to
100 meters
865-956 MHz = 0.5
to 5 meters
433–956 = 30 Kbit/s
2.45=100 Kbit/s

less
than
0.5 meter

Up to
meters

1.5

Typical data
transfer rate

less than 1
Kbit/s

About
Kbit/s

25

Animal ID
Car
immobilizer

Smart Labels

Specialist animal

Moving

Typical use

Contact-less
travel cards

tracking
Logistics

vehicle toll

read range

Up to 10m
Up to 100
Kbit/s

Mobile Web/Client Banking
Mobile Web/Client Banking is a browser-based
application, where users would access the Internet from a
mobile phone. It usually offer 24/7 real-time access to users
accounts right from a Web-enabled cell phone, allowing
users to access account information, pay bills, transfer
funds, or find a in some cases nearby ATM or Branch from
the handheld mobile device[24]. The service requires no
special software. However, For Mobile Web/Client Banking,
the phone would have to support web browsing [22], which
usually requires a "data" support plan as part of the mobile
service.
The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system at the
very simplest level, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
system consists of a tag (or transponder) and reader (or
interrogator) with an antenna. Tags can be passive with no
power source or active. The technology allows for the
transmission of a serial number wirelessly, using radio
waves. A typical RFID transponder (tag) which can be
passive (no battery) or active (with battery) consists of an
antenna and an integrated circuit chip which is capable of
storing an identification number and other information [16].
The reader sends out electromagnetic waves. The tag antenna
is tuned to receive these waves. A passive RFID tag draws
power from the field created by the reader and uses it to
power the microchip's circuits. The chip then modulates the
waves that the tag sends back to the reader, which converts
the new waves into digital data. RFID systems use many

A smart phone with RFID tag for ATM communication:
Experiments and Analysis; RFID enabled cell phones
A paper published in RFID journal in 2004 [33] predicted
that within 5 years, 50% of cell phones will include RFID
chips to use Near Field Communication (NFC), a two-way
technology. The service was supposed to automatically
connect cell phones with services in a similar fashion that
occurs between airplanes and air traffic controllers on earth.
NFC technology uses short-range RFID transmissions that
provide easy and secure communications between various
devices [33]. The important element in this proposal is the
automatic peer to peer communication between RFID
equipments without user involvement. The cell phone can be
connected to RFID enabled applications such as websites,
ATMs, restaurant outlets, GPS, etc. Files or video transfer is
also possible similar to the current Bluetooth technology. In
order to make this work, an NFC chip embedded in a phone
can act as an RFID reader when the phone is on and a
passive smart label or RFID tag when the phone is off.
There are two main ways to integrate RFID with a
wireless smartphone: “A smartphone with RFID tags” and “a
smartphone with an RFID reader” [34]. The first one is a
typical cell phone that has embedded or attached an RFID
chip with some identification information programmed on it.
Its antenna is also equipped with RF antenna to be able to
communicate with the RFID readers when they are within

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010

the range. The RFID tag information is sent to the reader and
the reader can write information back to the phone.
On the other hand, the second type contains an RFID
reader that can collect data from various RFID tags with also
an RF antenna.
However, the technology is not going very smooth. The
limited UHF bandwidth and dense reader problems are still
major issues to adoption
NFC and ISO 14443 13.56 standard for NFC and RFID
enabled phones
Near Field Communication (NFC) is a standards-based,
short-range wireless connectivity technology that enables
simple and safe two-way interactions among electronic
devices [61].An ISO standard (14443) is proposed for NFC
RFID enabled phones operating at 13.56 MHz in close
proximity with a reader antenna. 14443 has certain features
that make it particularly well-suited to applications involving
sensitive information such as contactless credit cards as data
transmitted is encrypted and the transmission is very short.
Physical contact between the reader and the transponder is
not necessary. Even a line of sight is not required. A tag may
be attached to a package in the form of a smart label, worn
on a person hand, attached to a ring of keys or carried in a
purse along with conventional credit cards.
Some of the sought goals from using NFC RFID enabled
phones are: Making payments using contactless card readers,
reading account or status information from any equipment
that has RFID such as stores items, discounts from smart
posters or smart billboards, etc, store tickets to access
transportation gates, parking garages or get into events, and
many others.
II.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Recently, there are many examples for RFID enabled
applications.
For
example,
Objecs
company
(iwww.objecs.com) has developed three, cell-phone readable
tablets suitable for gravestones that once touched can read
information about the diseased.
In 2005, Wal-Mart
announced its decision to require its suppliers to be ready to
track goods using RFID tags. Other fields of applications for
RFIDs are: Transport and logistics: toll management,
tracking of goods, security and access control: tracking
people (students etc.), controlling access to restricted areas,
supply chain management: item tagging, theft-prevention,
medical and pharmaceutical applications: identification and
location of staff and patients, asset tracking, counterfeit
protection for drugs, manufacturing and processing:
streamlining assembly line processes, agriculture: tracking of
animals, quality control, public sector, sports and shopping
[38]. There are some other applications that are expected to
be used with RFID enabled smartphones. Examples of such
applications include: web information retrieval, data
transmission, automated messaging, voice services, device

integration, presence indication, and mobile payments and
money transactions.
The focus on this literature review will be on FRID
applications in cell phones and more particularly for banking
applications. A smartphone with an RFID reader can be
placed on a tag located on an equipment and use the wireless
network to browse through the Internet [35]. Similar to
wireless sensors, RFID enables phones can collect data at
real time for many applications such as automatic material,
items, weather status tracking, etc.
Currently, there are many phone companies such as
Nokia, Motorola, Apple, Minec who are designing or
developing RFID enabled phones [35, 36, 37]. In 2004,
Nokia introduced its first RFID enabled phone 5140. Figure
shows the user interface for Nokia 3220 that is also RFID
enabled.

Figure 1. Cell phone screen with RFID tag feature

Mobile payment with RFID enabled phones is already
available in some regions of the world. For example, in
Japan and Germany, train users can pay their tickets using
their enabled phones. Similar approaches are applied for
airline check-in services. In France, Carrefour embraces
RFID payments by card and phone.
In the following paragraphs, we will mention some
papers that discussed using wireless phones in the security of
mobile banking which is the focus of this subject. Some
papers discussed mobile banking security, evaluations and
metrics in general and examples of threats. [42, 44, 49, 50,
51, 53, 54, 56, 57]. Narendiran et al discussed using PKI
security framework for mobile banking [40]. Shahreza
discussed using stenography for improving mobile banking
security [41]. Hossain et al [43] discussed enhancing security
of SMS for financial and other services [43]. Manvi et al,
Itani et al, and Krol et al proposed using J2EE and J2ME for
enhancing mobile banking security [45, 47, 58]. Hwu et al
proposed an encrypted identity mechanism for financial
mobile security [46]. Ghotra et al proposed using Secure
Display Devices (SDD) with phones for secure financial
transactions [48]. Zhu et al and Rice et al proposed a
framework for secure mobile payments based on
cryptography [52, 55]. Henkel et al discussed the idea of

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010

secure remote cash deposit [59]. Finally, in a similar goal to
this paper, Arabo proposed utilizing phones for securing
ATM transactions [60]

Figure 2: Mobile Banking Security System

III.

THE PROPOSED SOLUTION FRAMEWORK

Mobile Banking gives users instant connectivity to their
accounts anytime, anywhere using the browser on their
mobile device, allowing users to access account details,
history and check account balances, which increase
convenience for the consumer, while reducing banking costs.
Value-added services are the key for long-term survival
online banking. However, given the uncertain nature of the
transmission environment, there are security shortfalls in
the present mobile banking implementations such as security
problems with GSM network, SMS/GPRS protocols and
security problems with current banks mobile banking
solutions [63].
Services have security and privacy barriers that causes
resistance and slows down the adoption, a recent study
shows that 91 % of the respondents said they had never tried
banking through a mobile device, and 48% of those who
have not conducted banking through a mobile device
indicated that security and privacy are the primary reason .
A lot still prefer traditional telephone banking or ATMs and
service terminals [1]. Thus, bank managers could enhance
adoption of mobile banking services by concentrating their
marketing efforts on factors under those barriers.

A. Mobile Banking Security System
B.
Figure 2 shows a typical mobile banking system using
cell phones. In mobile banking as with online and traditional
banking methods, security is a primary concern. Banks
announce that all standard “Distance” Banking security
features are applied at login including multifactor
authentication by soliciting multiple answers to challenge
questions. However, this may be considered strong
authentication but, unless the process also retrieves
'something you have' or 'something you are', it should not be
considered multi-factor. Nevertheless, Data security between
the customer browser and the Web server is handled through
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) security protocol. SSL protects
data in three key ways: 1) Authentication to ensure that a
user is communicating with the correct server; 2) Encryption
to make transferred data unreadable to anyone except the
intended recipient; 3) Data integrity and verify that the
information sent by users was not altered during the transfer
(usually If any tampering has occurred, the connection is
dropped) [6]. There are no bouts that banks have taken every
precaution necessary to be sure that information is
transmitted safely and securely. The security of mobile
banking application is addressed at three levels (see Figure
2). The first concern is the security of customer information
as it is sent from the customer's mobile phone to the Web
server. The second area concerns the security of the
environment in which remote access to the banking server
and customer information database reside. Finally, security
measures are in place to prevent unauthorized users from
attempting to log into the online banking section of the Web
site.

Proposed Framework Modification

Banks providing mobile services need to work on
reducing security risks and improving customers’ trust.
Therefore, in an attempt to help banks achieve a high level of
trust of mobile banking, this study has developed a module
that shall further tighten security of mobile banking, and
reduce the associated risk (see Figure 3), by adding a RadioFrequency Identification (RFID) reader to the mobile
banking system, on the end user’s mobile phone.

Figure 3: Proposed Module to Increase Mobile Security



Proposed hardware changes: Cell phones with RFID
tags

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010

proposed use login use case for ATM that include verifying
customers identity with their RFID tag along with the card
number and PIN.

Figure 4. Connecting cell phone with ATMs through RFID

RFID tags, that are composed of an antenna connected to
an electronic chip. Figure 4 shows a simple design to connect
cell phones with the ATM system. When an RFID tag passes
through the field of the scanning antenna, it detects the
activation signal from the antenna. That "wakes up" the
RFID chip, and it transmits the information on its microchip
to be picked up by the scanning antenna. The RFID reader
transmits radio-frequency queries, tags respond by sending
back information they enclose. Finally, a Mobile phone
hosting a specific RFID application pilots the reader and
processes the data it sends. RFID does not require a line-ofsight reader. This whole process is depicted in Figure SSS.

Figure 5. RFID enabled phones.



Figure 7. Typical ATM display model, with RFID attribute added to
customer accounts

Proposed software changes, Programming the cell
phone

The major modification proposal for phones is hardware.
Once, the phone is NFC RFID enabled, accompanied
software can be included to be able to synch the phone with
the RFID reader. Other expected tasks will depend whether
we want the RFID tag in the phone to be active or passive, or
if we want it to send and receive signals or just be a passive
receiver or responder (Figure 5).


Figure 6: Use case of proposed modification on ATM access authentication

Programming the ATM and the banking system

ATM user interface should be modified to include adding
a new security rule for login. Figure 6 and 7 show the

The banking system should be also modified to be able to
deal with users RFID tags creation, cancelation, update,
verification, etc. Eventually this can be incorporated with the
database management system where the tag ID will be added
as an attribute to users’ accounts.
C. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
In this paper, we proposed utilizing NFC RFID enabled
phone for mobile banking security. This proposal is expected
to solve problems with identity or credit card thefts. Users
will be required to have their smart phones with them to be
able to process ATM transactions. This is convenient as

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010

users usually have their mobile phones with them all the
time. Technology can help facilitating this service without
breaking bank or users’ privileges or security.
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