Reliability and Validity of Eye Movement Measures of Reading.pdf
MILES A. TINKER
A photographic technique • was employed to record eye movements during the
reading of three kinds of material, (i) Seven paragraphs of connected discourse
normally adapted to about fourth-grade reading. This yielded a measure of speed
with comprehension practically constant at an easy level. The number of lines in
the succeeding paragraphs was: paragraph P, 8 lines; A, 5; B, 10; C, 8; D, 12; E, 6; F, 5.
(2) Seven successive paragraphs of relatively hard scientific prose taken from Holmes'
The evolution of animal intelligence. The number of lines was: in paragraph A, 7 lines;
B, 6; C, 11; D, 15; E, 16; F, 6; G, 16. In addition there were two introductory paragraphs of this material to orient the reader in the subject matter before the eye movements in reading the succeeding sections were photographed. (3) Two sections
(14 lines each) of four short paragraphs taken from the Chapman-Cook Speed of
Reading Test. These were taken from a part of the test not previously read by the
The easy and difficult prose selections were printed on egg-shell paper stock, in 10
point Scotch Roman type with 2 point leading and a 25 pica line length; the speed of
reading test, in 10 point Antique set solid with a 19 pica line length. In addition to the
reading done before the camera, scores were obtained for each subject on the following
tests: Test I (vocabulary) of the Minnesota Reading Examination for College Students,
Form A; Test I (paragraph meaning) of the Iowa Silent Reading Tests, Advanced
Test, Form A; Chapman-Cook Speed of Reading Test, Form A.
The following procedure was adopted. The performance tests were given to the
subjects in regular class groups. The subjects then went to the photographic laboratory for two sittings separated by one or two days. At the first sitting the subject
was told how the photographing was done. Then photographs were taken while the
subject read the first four paragraphs of the easy material. Thus paragraph P
(practice) gave a record of eye movements on first exposure to the apparatus. The
two preliminary paragraphs of the difficult prose were then read for orientation to
the material. This was followed by photographs for sections A, B, C, and D. Finally
photographs were taken while reading the first Chapman-Cook selection (CCi).
On the second day the subjects were oriented by rereading the last paragraph done
at the preceding sitting. This was followed by photographing the remaining three
sections of easy material, the three of hard prose and the second Chapman-Cook
selection. Comprehension questions were asked on all selections read. Seventyseven university sophomores who were taking elementary psychology served as subjects
in the experiment.
To further study the degree of adaptation to the experimental situation, 57 new
subjects (freshmen) were brought to the laboratory individually. Each was given
Form A of the Chapman-Cook Speed of Reading Test at a table, which is the customary
way of giving the test. Then, after explaining how the apparatus works, the subject
was seated at the camera, the light and focusing adjustments made, and the motor
started. After a short practice trial, Form B of the Chapman-Cook Test was read.
The subject thought he was being photographed but in reality there was no film in
the camera. Scoring was done as on Form A. A time limt of 1} minutes was used.
Comparison of scores on Forms A and B should reveal the adaptation to the experimental situation.
•Tinker, M. A., Apparatus for recording eye movements,
dmer. J. PsychoL,