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Ashraf Abu Izam
Grade 10 - B
Latin Patriarchate High School
T. Lina Qura
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18. It is in group 18 of the periodic table and
is a noble gas. Argon is the third most common gas in the Earth's atmosphere, at 0.93% (9,300 ppm), making it
approximately 23.8 times as abundant as the next most common atmospheric gas, carbon dioxide (390 ppm),
and more than 500 times as abundant as the next most common noble gas, neon (18 ppm). Nearly all of this
argon is radiogenic argon-40 derived from the decay of potassium-40 in the Earth's crust. In the universe, argon36 is by far the most common argon isotope, being the preferred argon isotope produced by stellar
nucleosynthesis in supernovas.
Argon is produced industrially by the fractional distillation of liquid air. Argon is mostly used as an inert
shielding gas in welding and other high-temperature industrial processes where ordinarily non-reactive
substances become reactive; for example, an argon atmosphere is used in graphite electric furnaces to prevent
the graphite from burning. Argon gas also has uses in incandescent and fluorescent lighting, and other types of
gas discharge tubes. Argon makes a distinctive blue-green gas laser.
Argon has approximately the same solubility in water as oxygen, and is 2.5 times more soluble in water than
nitrogen. Argon is colorless, odorless, nonflammable and nontoxic as a solid, liquid, and gas. Argon is
chemically inert under most conditions and forms no confirmed stable compounds at room temperature.
Although argon is a noble gas, it has been found to have the capability of forming some compounds. For
example, the creation of argon fluorohydride (HArF), a marginally stable compound of argon with fluorine and
hydrogen, was reported by researchers at the University of Helsinki in 2000. Although the neutral ground-state
chemical compounds of argon are presently limited to HArF, argon can form clathrates with water when atoms
of it are trapped in a lattice of the water molecules. Argon-containing ions and excited state complexes, such as
ArH+and ArF, respectively, are known to exist. Theoretical calculations have predicted several argon
compounds that should be stable, but for which no synthesis routes are currently known.
Argon's complete octet of electrons indicates full s and p subshells. This full outer energy level makes argon
very stable and extremely resistant to bonding with other elements. Before 1962, argon and the other noble
gases were considered to be chemically inert and unable to form compounds; however, compounds of the
heavier noble gases have since been synthesized. In August 2000, the first argon compound was formed by
researchers at the University of Helsinki. By shining ultraviolet light onto frozen argon containing a small

amount of hydrogen fluoride with caesium iodide, argon fluorohydride (HArF) was formed. It is stable up to 40
kelvin (−233 C).
Argon is used in industrial processes which involve high-temperature. It has various uses such as in graphite
electric furnaces to prevent the graphite from burning, metal inert gas welding for example tungsten and in the
processing of titanium and other reactive elements. It is also used to grow crystals of germanium and silicon.
Though it can cause headache, dizziness, dullness and suffocation if inhaled. It can cause frostbite if it comes
into contact with liquid.

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