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Case 1:12-cv-00135-DWM Document 153 Filed 03/26/14 Page 1 of 23
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
FOR THE DISTRICT OF MONTANA
MARK WANDERING MEDICINE,
HUGH CLUB FOOT, LENARD ELK
OUT, WINFIELD RUSSELL, JAMES
DAY CHILD, WOODROW BRIEN,
SARAH STRAY CALF, MARTY
OTHER BULL, NEWLYN LITTLE
OWL, DONOVAN ARCHAMBAULT,
ED MOORE, PATTY QUISNO,
MICHAEL D. FOX, FRANK
JEFFERSON and PHYLLIS POND
LINDA MCCULLOCH in her official
capacity as Montana Secretary of State,
GERALDINE CUSTER, in her official
capacity of Rosebud County Clerk and
Recorder, Rosebud County, ROBERT E.
LEE, DOUGLAS D. MARTENS, and
DANIEL M. SIOUX, in their official
capacity as members of the County Board
of Commissioners for Rosebud County,
Montana, SANDRA L. BOARDMAN, in
her official capacity of Blaine County
Clerk and Recorder, Blaine County,
CHARLIE KULBECK, M. DELORES
PLUMMAGE and FRANK DEPRIEST in
their official capacity as members of the
County Board of Commissioners for
Blaine, County, Montana, DULCE BEAR
Clerk, u.s District Court
District Of Montana
Case 1:12-cv-00135-DWM Document 153 Filed 03/26/14 Page 2 of 23
DON'T WALK, in her official capacity of
Big Hom County Election Administrator,
Big Hom County, SIDNEY
FITZP ATRICK, JR., CHAD FENNER,
JOHN PRETIY ON TOP, in their official
capacity as members ofthe County Board
of Commissioners for Big Hom County,
Montana and KIMBERLY Y ARLOTT, in
her official capacity of Big Hom County
Clerk and Recorder, Big Hom County,
Plaintiffs are Native Americans from Montana's Fort Belknap, Crow, and
Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations. They ask this Court to order Defendants
to open satellite county offices with in-person absentee voting and late voter
registration in Fort Belknap, Crow Agency, and Lame Deer, Montana Their
October 10,2012 Complaint alleges claims under § 2 of the Voting Rights Act, the
Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States
Constitution, and Article ll, § 13 of the Montana Constitution. (Doc. 1.) Named
as Defendants are Montana's Secretary of State ("the Secretary") and county
officials from the three Montana counties involved ("County Defendants").
Twenty-seven days before the 2012 general election, Plaintiffs moved for a
Case 1:12-cv-00135-DWM Document 153 Filed 03/26/14 Page 3 of 23
mandatory preliminary injunction directing Defendants to immediately open the
requested satellite offices. (Doc. 3.) On October 30,2012, after a day and half of
testimony, the motion was denied. (Doc. 79.) Plaintiffs appealed that decision to
the Ninth Circuit, which ultimately denied Plaintiffs' motion as moot. Wandering
Medicine v. McCulloch, Slip Copy No. 12-35926 (9th Cir. October 30,2013).
Defendants have moved to dismiss Plaintiffs' Complaint for lack of
standing and failure to state a claim. Plaintiffs oppose these motions and have
moved to strike four affidavits. The Secretary's motion to dismiss (Doc. 36) is
denied, County Defendants' motions to dismiss (Doc. 51 and 73) are granted in
part and denied in part, and Plaintiffs' motion to strike (Doc. 108) is denied.
Rule 12(b)(1) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure allows for a motion to
dismiss based on lack of subject-matter jurisdiction. Under this provision, a claim
can be challenged both facially and substantively. See Arbarugh v. Y & H Corp.,
546 U.S. 500 (2006). A facial challenge contests the adequacy ofthe allegations
of the complaint, whereas a substantive challenge contests the factual merits of the
asserted federal jurisdiction. See Nationwide Mut. Ins. Co. v. Liberatore, 408 F.3d
1158, 1161 (9th Cir. 2005); Wolfe v. Strankman, 392 F.3d 358, 362 (9th Cir.
Case 1:12-cv-00135-DWM Document 153 Filed 03/26/14 Page 4 of 23
2004). The plaintiff has the burden to establish that subject-matter jurisdiction is
proper. See Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 504 U.S. 555,561 (1992).
"A suit brought by a plaintiff without Article III standing is not a 'case or
controversy,' and an Article III federal court therefore lacks subject matter
jurisdiction over the suit. In that event, the suit should be dismissed under Rule
12(b)(1)." Cetacean Community v. Bush, 386 F.3d 1169, 1174 (9th Cir. 2004)
(citations omitted). Under the "case or controversy" requirement, it is the
plaintiff's burden to show three elements: (1) a concrete injury-in-fact; (2) a causal
connection between the injury and defendant's conduct; and (3) a likelihood that
the injury will be redressed by a favorable decision. Lujan, 504 U.S. at 560-6l.
To survive a motion to dismiss pursuant to Rule 12(b)(6) of the Federal
Rules of Civil Procedure, a "complaint must contain sufficient factual matter,
accepted as true, to state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face." Ashcroft v.
Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662, 678 (2009) (internal quotation marks and citation omitted).
"A claim has facial plausibility when the plaintiff pleads factual content that
allows the court to draw the reasonable inference that the defendant is liable for
the misconduct alleged." Id. "Threadbare recitals ofthe elements of a cause of
action, supported by mere conclusory statements," are insufficient. Id. at 663.
Case 1:12-cv-00135-DWM Document 153 Filed 03/26/14 Page 5 of 23
Plaintiffs have standing to bring claims against County
County Defendants contend Plaintiffs lack standing as they have not made a
showing of any injury-in-fact, insisting each Individual Plaintiff is free to vote on
Election Day and has a number of options by which to exercise this right, such as:
voting at polling places on election day, mailing in absentee ballots, voting inperson at their respective county courthouses, or obtaining an absentee ballot via a
third person. (Doc. 52 at 8.) County Defendants also contend Plaintiffs have
exercised these alternatives. (Docs. 104, 105, 106.) However, County Defendants
provide too limited a characterization of when an injury has been alleged.
To establish injury-in-fact, Plaintiffs must show "an invasion of a legally
protected interest which is (a) concrete and particularized and (b) actual or
imminent, not conjectural or hypothetical." Lujan, 504 U.S. at 560 (internal
quotations marks and citations omitted). "At the pleading stage, general factual
allegations of injury resulting from the defendant's conduct may suffice, for on a
motion to dismiss [a court] presum[es] that general allegations embrace those
specific facts that are necessary to support the claim." Id. at 561. However, the
Case 1:12-cv-00135-DWM Document 153 Filed 03/26/14 Page 6 of 23
Supreme Court has repeatedly refused "to recognize a generalized grievance
against allegedly illegal governmental conduct as sufficient for standing to invoke
the federal judicial power." United States v. Hays, 515 U.S. 737, 743, 745 (1995)
(finding the plaintiffs did not have standing as they did not reside within the
district which was the subject of redistricting). Even if a governmental actor is
discriminating on the basis of race, the resulting injury "accords a basis for
standing only to those persons who are personally denied equal treatment by the
challenged discriminatory conduct[.]" Allen v. Wright, 468 U.S. 737, 755 (1984).
Here, Plaintiffs have alleged residence in the counties and reservations at
issue and that their right to participate in the political process through voting has
been hindered by the Defendants' refusal to establish satellite offices. The
Supreme Court has made it clear that the location and accessability of polling
places has a direct effect on a person's ability to exercise his franchise. Perkins v.
Matthews, 400 U.S. 379,387 (1971). Although the Perkins case arose in the
context of § 5 of the Voting Rights Act, the Court held that the use of polling
places at locations remote from African-American communities, or at places
calculated to intimidate African-Americans from entering (when alternatives were
available), was a practice or procedure violating the Voting Rights Act. Id.
Plaintiffs' alleged injury is similar. Plaintiffs allege they are Native Americans
Case 1:12-cv-00135-DWM Document 153 Filed 03/26/14 Page 7 of 23
and that the locations at which they can currently engage in in-person absentee
voting and late voter registration are remote from their communities and they have
perceived prejudice when visiting these locations. These allegations are sufficient
to sustain their burden of showing injury-in-fact. Compare with Perry-Bey v. City
ofNorfolk, Va., 678 F. Supp. 2d 348,363 (E.D. Va. 2009) (holding the plaintiff
lacked standing as she failed to allege that she was a member of a minority group
and that her right to vote had been abridged on account of her race or color).
However, County Defendants are correct in their criticism of the standing of
three Individual Plaintiffs. Although Plaintiffs state that Phyllis Culbertson and
Lenard Elk Shoulder may fall under the category of people that would benefit
from late registration at a satellite location, they fail to demonstrate that these two
individuals are registered voters or would engage in late registration if given the
chance. See Hays, 515 U.S. at 746; see also Warth v. Seldin, 422 U.S. 490, 505
506 (1975) (finding plaintiffs lacked standing because they could not demonstrate
that if the Court removed the obstacles at issue, they would actually take the
desired action); Perry-Bey, 678 F. Supp. 2d at 363 (finding the plaintiff lacked
standing as the Complaint failed to allege she was a registered voter in the City of
Norfolk). As discussed above, Plaintiffs have the burden of affirmatively
demonstrating standing. Lujan, 504 U.S. 560. Therefore, Individual Plaintiffs
Case 1:12-cv-00135-DWM Document 153 Filed 03/26/14 Page 8 of 23
Culbertson and Elk Shoulder lack standing. l Individual Plaintiff Frank Jefferson
similarly lacks standing under the redressability requirement because the county
seat ofHardin would still be closer to his home than the closest proposed satellite
office in Crow Agency. See Lujan, 504 U.S. at 561.
The remaining Plaintiffs, however, have sufficiently alleged standing.
Although every individual does not have the right to the exact means and
convenience in voting as he or she may desire, Jacksonville Coalition for Voter
Protection v, Hood, 351 F. Supp. 2d 1326 (M.D. Fl. 2004), Plaintiffs have pled
injury based on the locations of polling places and their inability to access them.
Whether such an injury rises to the level of a violation of Federal or Constitutional
law is to be decided on the merits.
The remaining Plaintiffs also have standing to bring claims
against the Secretary.
Plaintiffs have demonstrated a sufficient causal connection.
The Secretary first contends Plaintiffs lack standing as they cannot show she
was involved in the deprivation oftheir civil rights. For there to be a causal
connection between the injury and the conduct complained of, the injury has to be
Plaintiffs have failed to respond to County Defendants' contention
that Culbertson is not registered in Blaine County as alleged in the Complaint.
Absent this fact or any facts demonstrating her intent to engage in late registration,
her standing has therefore not been affirmatively shown.
Case 1:12-cv-00135-DWM Document 153 Filed 03/26/14 Page 9 of 23
"fairly ... trace[able] to the challenged action of the defendant, and not ... [t]he
result [of] the independent action of some third party not before the court." Lujan,
504 U.S. at 560 (internal quotation marks and citation omitted).
Applying this rule to the case at hand, Plaintiffs present a persuasive
argument for causation. As discussed above, the injury in the present case is the
alleged diminished ability to participate in the political process due to the lack of
satellite offices in the requested locales. Although the Complaint does not
expressly indicate what actions ofthe Secretary are in question, three are
implicated: (1) the Secretary's initial denial of the request for the establishment of
a similar office in Browning, (CompI., Doc. 1 at,-r 121), (2) the later issuance ofan
advisory opinion which states that the establishment of such offices is "optional"
(Id. at,-r 126), and (3) the failure to issue a directive ordering such offices be
established. Considered together, (2) and (3) give rise to a causal connection. 2
On August 28,2012, the Secretary "issued an Election Advisory stating the
proper procedures and considerations a County should make in offering a satellite
early voting location." (Id. at,-r 126.) The purported reason for this Advisory was
The failure to establish a satellite office in Browning is not fairly
traceable to the injury alleged here as it involved the Secretary's interactions with
the residents of the Blackfeet Reservation, none of which are plaintiffs in the
present case. However, as discussed later, this incident implicates what authority
the Secretary believed she had in this area.