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Literature

2015 |2014 |2013 |2012 |2011 |2010 |2009 |2007 |2006 |2005 |2004 |2003 |2002 |2001 |2000 |
1999 |

volume 17(2), 2015

Shade effects on growth, flowering and fruit of apple
S.S. Miller, C. Hott and T. Tworkoski

USDA-ARS, 2217 Wiltshire Road, Appalachian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, WV
25430, USA.
Key words: Apple, carbohydrate, fruit quality, productivity

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 101-105.
Full text PDF |
Abstract: Light is a critical resource needed by plants for growth and reproduction. A major
portion of the apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) tree’s canopy is subjected to shade during
most daylight hours each day and such shade may affect productivity. The current research
determined effects of morning, afternoon, and all-day shading on processes that are
significant to orchard productivity. In 1996 ‘Ginger Gold’/M.9 apple trees were planted in the
field near Kearneysville, WV and shade treatments were imposed from 2002 to 2005. Trunk
and branch growth were reduced consistently by morning shade (MS) compared to no shade
(NS) and full shade (FS) and afternoon shade (AS) had intermediate effects. Total branch
growth from 2002 to 2005 was 164, 168, 145, and 157 cm for FS, NS, MS, and AS,
respectively. Although shade affected yield inconsistently from year-to-year, total yield from
2002 to 2005 was 7.8, 201.6, 72.5, and 110.6 kg/tree for FS, NS, MS, and AS, respectively.
Time of shading clearly affected yield with full shade causing the greatest reduction, followed
by partial shade treatments, MS and AS. Concentrations of soluble carbohydrates, particularly
sorbitol, were greater in leaves of AS compared to MS. It is postulated that MS may have
adversely affected photosynthesis at a time of day that was most conducive to high net
assimilation. Planting and training apple trees to minimize shade, especially morning shade,
may benefit orchard productivity.
volume 17(2), 2015

Black rot control and bud cold hardiness of "Noiret" winegrape
Eric T. Stafne, Becky Carroll and Damon Smith

Coastal Research and Extension Center, Plant and Soil Sciences Department, Mississippi State
University, Poplarville, MS, USA 39470, 1-601-403-8939. 1Agricultural Hall, Department of
Horticulture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
Key words: Disease control, disease severity, Guignardia bidwellii, interspecific hybrid,
organic, vine stress, Vitis spp.
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Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 106-108.
Full text PDF |
Abstract: Black rot, caused by Guignardia bidwellii (Ellis) Viala and Ravaz, and bud cold
hardiness are both management issues in eastern U.S. viticulture. Black rot infections lead to
vine stress, resulting in premature defoliation and rotten fruit, potentially compromising cold
acclimation of the vine. No studies have targeted bud cold hardiness in relation to severity of
prior season black rot infection. Thus, in 2011, •Noiret•, a hybrid winegrape, was subjected to
four black rot control treatments: conventional (C), organic 1 (O1), organic 2 (O2), and no
spray (N). Leaves and fruit were scored for black rot severity. The O1 and N treatments had
the highest level of leaf and fruit disease severity and were not significantly different. The C
treatment had the least amount of leaf and fruit disease severity and the O2 treatment was
intermediate and significantly different from the O1, N, and C treatments. Bud samples were
taken in January, February, and March 2012 and exposed to subzero temperatures (-21 •C, 23 •C, -26 •C, -29 •C) in an ethylene glycolbath to assess if prior season black rot infection
impacted primary bud hardiness. In January and March nearly all buds were still alive at -21•C
and -23•C, but -29•C caused more damage. Black rot control treatments were not a
statistically significant factor in the bud hardiness experiment. This could be due to black rot
severity being below a critical threshold for impact or the vines had enough time to recover in
late summer and fall to reach full mid-winter hardiness.
volume 17(2), 2015

High efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sour orange
(Citrus aurantium L.) using gene encoding Citrus Tristeza Virus coat
protein
Mohammad Mehdi Sohani, Mohammad Hosein Rezadoost, Amir Hosein Zamani, Mohammad
Reza Mirzaii and Ali Reza Afsharifar

Biotechnology Department, College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
2Plant Virology Research Center, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
Key words: Acetosyringon, vir gene induction, virus induce gene silencing, Citrus tristeza
virus

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 109-114.
Full text PDF |
Abstract: Citrus trees are widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates due to their
luscious taste, nutritional and medical benefits. Citrus fruits are native to southeastern Asia
and are among the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. Breeding programs including
the incorporation of genetic resistance to pests and diseases are necessary in this crop. Citrus
tristeza virus (CTV) is of particular importance due to its rapid epidemic resulting in severe
plant damage. The present research was aimed at transforming Citrus aurantinum with a gene
encoding virus coat protein from CTV through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. P25
coat protein gene was identified and then isolated from different CTV strains. Two regions of
the gene were conserved among the genera and subcloned as a single chimer into a
pFGC5941 silencing vector. Epicotyls-originated explants of C. aurantium were transformed by
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EHA105 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Some of the effective factors in gene
transformation were examined by inoculation methods with Agrobacterium such as
Acetosyringon effect (0, 50, and 100 •M), inoculation time (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min), and cocultivation period (1, 2, 3 and 4 days). Based on our results, maximum number of
transformed plants (13.7%) were obtained under combined treatment of 50 •M
acetosyringone after 15 min inoculation time and 2 days of co-cultivation with Agrobacterium.
One of the advantages of the current protocol is regeneration of explants through direct
organogenesis which avoid callus phase and consequently somaclonal variation.
volume 17(2), 2015

Characterization of a new leaf-compound radish mutant (Raphanus sativus
L.)
Fenghua Wang, Guangyuan Li, Shuangchen Chen, Yan Jiang and Shaoxian Wang

Forestry College, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003, China.
Key words: Radish, mutant, compound leaf, microstructure, SRAP

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 115-120 .
Full text PDF |
Abstract: Previously we have developed a method, which uses two criteria, ‘time to flower
opening’ and ‘vase life’, for characterizing flower opening profiles in cut spray-type flowers of
carnation. These two criteria were used to evaluate the activities of flower preservatives,
which accelerate flower bud opening, resulting in shortening the time to flower opening, and
delay senescence, resulting in extension of vase life. In the present study, we developed the
third criterion ‘gross flower opening’ which characterizes the ability of flower buds to open.
Using this criterion the activity of analogs of pyridinedicarboxylic acids was successfully
evaluated in addition to the previously-reported evaluation of their activity of acceleration of
flower bud opening and extension of vase life.
volume 17(2), 2015

Effect of various factors on shoot regeneration from citrus epicotyl
explants
Randall P. Niedz*, Joseph P. Albano and Mizuri Marutani-Hert

Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 South Rock Road
Ft. Pierce, FL34945-3030, USA
Key words: Water, nonionic surfactants, gelling agents, malachite green, sodium sulphate,
Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., C. sunki Hort. ex Tanaka. x Poncirus
trifoliata L. Raf., C. paradisi Macf., C. sinensis L. Osbeck

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 121-128.
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Literature

Full text PDF |
Abstract: The effect of various treatments on shoot organogenesis from seedling epicotyl
explants from various scion and rootstock polyembryonic citrus types was determined.
Treatments included water source, gelling agent, explant insertion, seed size, light intensity,
malachite green, nonionic surfactants, and sodium sulphate. Tap water, with the highest levels
of SO42-, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, and Na+, resulted in the most shoots compared to the other 5
sources, suggesting a mineral nutrient effect. Carrageenan produced fewer shoots than agar
and gellan gum. Explants inserted into the medium produced more shoots than those cultured
on the surface, presumably because of better exposure to water and nutrients. Seed size, light
intensity, malachite green, and sodium sulphate had no effect on the number of shoots
regenerated. Triton X-100 at 0.1 % resulted in significantly fewer shoots; otherwise, nonionic
surfactants had no effect.
volume 17(2), 2015

Suitable and available land for cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) in the
island of Lombok, Indonesia
Widiatmaka, Wiwin Ambarwulan, Atang Sutandi, Kukuh Murtilaksono, Khursatul Munibah and
Usman Daras

Department of Soil Soil Science and Land Resources, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia.
Geospatial Information Agency, Indonesia. 3Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and
Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Indonesia.
Key words: Geographic information system, horticultural crop, land evaluation, land use
planning

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 129-139.
Full text PDF |
Abstract: Cashews have a potential economic value for local people, and as a conservation
plant that is appropriate for small islands, which usually have limited resource capacities. The
research for this paper was conducted on Lombok Island, Indonesia with the objective to
delineate the potential areas for cashew, based on land availability and land suitability. Land
availability was analyzed by taking into account the land use and land cover maps interpreted
from SPOT-6 imagery, a Forest Areas Status map and a map from the Official Spatial Land
Use Plan. The evaluation of the land’s suitability for cashews was conducted at a land mapping
unit resulting from a soil survey, carried out at a scale of 1:25,000. The suitability analysis
was done using a maximum limitation method, where the suitability level was defined by the
lowest soil characteristics which determined the plant’s requirements. The land evaluation
criteria were established in previous research, which included this island as an area of criteria
establishment. The research results show that the land on this island has suitability status for
cashews ranging from S2 (moderately suitable) to N (not suitable). The limiting factors include
water availability, nutrient retention, available nutrients and rooting media, some of which can
be improved. According to the available and suitable land, an area of 4,075.6 ha can be
assigned as first priority, 18,167.3 ha as second priority and 43,582.8 ha as third priority for
cashew expansion areas.

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Literature

volume 17(2), 2015

Effects of pre-harvested N-(2-chloropyridin-4-yl)-N•-phenylurea (CPPU)
spraying on the improvement of flower quality of Dendrobium Sonia
•Earsakul•
S. Abdullakasim, K. Kaewsongsang, P. Anusornpornpong and P. Saradhuldhat

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University,
Kamphaeng Saen, Nakhon Pathom-73140, Thailand.
Key words: Dendrobium, cytokinin; BA, inflorescence, pseudobulb, deformed flower

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 140-144.
Full text PDF |
Abstract: Improvement of flower quality is a major concern which plays a part in the
enhancement of the marketability of the •Dendrobium• cut flower. In this study, both
synthetic cytokinins: N-(2-chloropyridin-4-yl)-N•-phenylurea (CPPU) and N-6-benzyladenine
(BA), were foliar sprayed at rates of: 1, 5 or 10 mg L-1 and 100, 200 or 400 mg L-1,
respectively, on current pseudobulbs of the Dendrobium Sonia •Earsakul• with 45-50 cm in
length. The treatments were applied thrice at fortnight intervals, prior to terminal bud
initiation. The results revealed that an application of 10 mg L-1 CPPU significantly increased
the numbers of inflorescence per pseudobulb (from 1.1 to 1.7 flowers), and the number of
flower on an inflorescence was increased from 12.2 to 13.8 flowers. The length and the
diameter of flower inflorescence, having 10 mg L-1 CPPU application, also increased from 49.4
cm to 55.1 cm, and 0.57 cm to 0.66 cm, respectively. In addition, the largest flower width and
the highest fresh inflorescence weight were also obtained with application of 10 mg L-1 CPPU
treatment. Despite the application of BA, at 400 mg L-1, enhancing the highest amount of
flower counts of inflorescence (at 14.8 flowers), 33.3% of those inflorescence obtained at
least one deformed flower. Overall, the results suggest that CPPU spray has a higher potential
to elevate flowers, along with the inflorescence qualities of Dendrobium Sonia •Earsakul•.
Furthermore, according to this study, CPPU has lower effects upon abnormal flower shapes,
and their times of harvest.
volume 17(2), 2015

Production, quality and aroma analysis of sapodilla (Manilkara achras
(Mill) Fosb.) wine
K. Ranjitha, C.K. Narayana, T.K. Roy and A.P. John

Division of Post Harvest Technology, Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Indian
Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore-560089, India.
Key words: Sapodilla, wine, yeast, phenolics, wine clarification, head space volatiles

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 145-150.
Abstract: Process was standardized for preparation of fermented beverage from sapodilla
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Literature

(Manilkara achras (Mill) Foseberg). The starter culture using yeast strain Saccharomyces
cerevisiae UCD 522 fermented juice from two sapodilla varieties viz., Cricket Ball and Oval, to
obtain wines with 10.1-11.2 % alcohol, 0.44- 0.58 % acidity, 3.6-3.9 pH, 0.26-0.28 %
residual sugar, 300-645 mg/L phenolics and <0.09 % volatile acidity in six to nine days at 18 °
C. Retention of peel while pulping improved the phenolics level; but reduced the sensory
quality of wine. Bentonite dosage and period required for clarification was optimized as 0.04
% for 14 days and 0.08 % for 21 days for production of wine from peeled fruits of Cricket Ball
and Oval varieties, respectively. Sensory evaluation of dry, sweet, and flavored wines
revealed the potential market acceptability of the wines. Head space volatile analysis showed
the presence of new odorous compounds like esters and short chain fatty acids during
vinification of sapodilla juice. Methoxy compounds and carbonyl fractions were less in the
finished wine compared to natural juice.
volume 17(2), 2015

Effect of planting date on growth, development, aerial biomass
partitioning and flower productivity of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) cv.
Siracole in Indo-gangetic plains of West Bengal
Khumukcham Joshna and P. Pal

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi
Viswavidyalaya (BCKV) Mohanpur, Nadia-741252, West Bengal, India.
Key words: Carotene, Meteorological Standard Weeks, planting time, Tagetes erecta L. cv.
Siracole.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 151-154.
Abstract: The investigation was carried out to evaluate the growth, flowering, yield and
quality of African marigold cv. Siracole, as influenced by different planting dates. The crop
planted on 9th June (T3) was found to have the highest plant height (96.93 cm). Maximum
number of primary (5.3) and secondary (14.15) branches/plant, total fresh weight (502.00 g/
plant), contribution by stem (385.00 g/plant) to the total fresh weight, higher dry (126.25 g/
plant) matter accumulation and also the dry matter accumulation in stem per plant (98.00 g/
plant) were found maximum with 12 April (T1) planting. The individual leaf area (4.73 sq cm)
on 90 days after planting was significantly higher in the crop planted on 16 May (T2). It took
minimum days (13.01 days) from visible bud to colour shown and bud emergence to full
bloom (20.16 days), maximum diameter of individual flower (3.99cm) were found with 12
April (T1) planting. Heaviest flower (2.55 g) was recorded with October 12 (T7) planting. 16th
May (T2) planting produced maximum number (7434.67) of flowers per plot (6.4 m2).
Maximum carotene content was noted with 12th October (T7) planting. Crops planted between
50th MSW (T9) 2011 to 3rd MSW (T10) 2012 produced very less crop biomass, dry matter
content and flower yield.
volume 17(2), 2015

Diversity of bee foraging flora and floral calendar of Paithan taluka of
Aurangabad district (Maharashtra), India
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Literature

Bhalchandra Waykar and R.K. Baviskar

Department of Zoology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad431004 (Maharashtra), India.
Key words: Bee flora, floral calendar, honey flow period, dearth period, Apis dorsata, A.
cerana indica, A. florea, A. mellifera.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 155-159.
Abstract: The study was conducted at Paithan taluka of Aurangabad district during October
2012–September 2013 to identify existing bee flora and to determine honey flow and dearth
period to develop the floral calendar. The flowering plants were visited and observed for the
presence of honey bees and their foraging activities. Plants were reported as bee foraging
species when at least three honey bees had visited the flowers within the period of 10
minutes. The result revealed that 63 plant species were useful to honeybees as source of food,
out of which 41 were wild and 22 were agro-horticultural plants. The identified flora was
further grouped into nectar, pollen and both nectar and pollen supplying plants. Out of 41 wild
bee plant species, 17 were nectar producing, 4 were pollen producing and 20 were both nectar
and pollen producing. Results also revealed that out of 22 agriculture bee plant species, 6
were nectar producing, 5 were pollen producing and 11 were both nectar and pollen
producing. Mid-October to mid-December was identified as honey flow period of the year,
having number of flowering plants. Mid-May to mid-August was the critical dearth period with
few flowering plants. Based on the availability of flora, major characteristics of these plant
species, utility status and flowering duration, the bee floral calendar was developed for
Paithan taluka of Aurangabad district. The result indicated that the area has rich bee flora and
is suitable for commercial bee keeping. Paithan taluka has four honey bee species, viz., Apis
dorsata, A. cerana indica, A. florea and A. mellifera. Among these, A. florea and A. dorsata
were dominant bee species, whereas A. mellifera was introduced species and only few colonies
of A. cerana indica were observed.
volume 17(2), 2015

Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration protocol in fig (Ficus
carica L.)
S.S. Dhage, V.P. Chimote, B.D. Pawar, A.A. Kale, S.V. Pawar and A.S. Jadhav

State Level Biotechnology Centre, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri-413722,
Maharashtra, India.
Key words: Fig, regeneration, genotype-specific, shoot tip culture, multiple shooting, rooting

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 160-164.
Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to develop an efficient in vitro
regeneration protocol in four fig cultivars viz., Poona Fig, Brown Turkey, Conadria and
Deanna. Highest shoot tip establishment was observed in Deanna (100 %), followed by
Conadria (79.2 %) and Brown Turkey (76.7 %) on MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L 6benzylaminopurine (BAP), 0.5 mg/L gibberellic acid (GA3). Establishment of shoot tips was
very poor in cultivar Poona Fig (11.7-13.3 %). Further inoculation of shoots on MS medium
supplemented with 1.0 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) resulted in both multiple shooting as
well as rooting. Significant number of newly formed shoots were observed in Conadria (4.7)
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Literature

and Deanna (3.8) as against in Brown Turkey (1) and Poona Fig (0.6). Highest root induction
was observed in Conadria (73.3 %), followed by Deanna (52.2 %), Brown Turkey (26.7 %)
and Poona Fig (24.4 %). These results confirmed that the shoot bud establishment and
multiple shoot induction in fig is highly genotype specific. As the response of popular cultivar
Poona Fig to shoot tip culture was very poor, tender leaf explants were further used for
regeneration study. Optimum regeneration was observed using MS medium supplemented
with 4.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) for callusing; 7 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ)
and 0.25 mg/L ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) for shooting and 1.0 mg/L IBA for rooting.
volume 17(2), 2015

Effect of packaging in extending shelf life of fresh curry leaves
Dawn C.P. Ambrose, S.J.K. Annamalai and Ravindra Naik

Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Regional Centre, Coimbatore-3, Tamil Nadu,
India.
Key words: Curry leaf, prepackaging, color scores, physiological weight loss, volatile oil

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 165-168.
Abstract: Curry leaf, which is a leafy spice, used in Asian culinary has limited shelf life.
Investigation was carried out to extend the shelf life of fresh curry leaf by prepackaging in
different packaging materials i.e., polyethylene bags of 38 and 75 micron thickness,
polypropylene bags of 20 and 38 micron thickness and stored under ambient (30?2?C) and
refrigerated (5 ?1?C) conditions. It was found that prepackaging fresh and stripped curry leaf
in polypropylene bag of 20 micron thickness with 0.1 % vent area of 5 mm diameter vent
could prolong the keeping quality for 4 days under ambient storage. Also under refrigerated
condition, under the same packaging treatment, the sample kept well for a period of 16 days
in polyethylene bag of 75 micron thickness.
volume 17(2), 2015

Cloning and characterisation of APETALA3-like and PISTILLATA-like B
class MADS-box genes from sweet cherry
Kenji Beppu, Hidemi Sumida and Ikuo Kataoka

Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki, Kagawa 761-0795, Japan.
Key words: AP3, class B gene, double pistils, PaPI, PaTM6, PI, Prunus avium

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 87-91.
Full text PDF |
Abstract: We isolated APETALA3 (AP3)-like and PISTILLATA (PI)-like cDNA clones called
PaTM6 and PaPI from sweet cherry (Prunus avium). PaTM6 showed very high similarity to the
TM6 lineage of AP3 of other Rosaceae species. PaTM6 contained three amino acid residues (F,
T, M) within the MADS box and the (H/Q)YExM sequence near the K box, both of which are
characteristic of the AP3 subfamily. A paleo AP3 motif was present at the C-terminal end of
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Literature

PaTM6. PaPI showed very high similarity to PI of other Rosaceae species. PaPI had the serine
residue and the KHExL sequence within the MADS box and near the K box, respectively, both
of which are characteristic of the PI subfamily. A PI motif was present at the C-terminal end of
PaPI. Both PaTM6 and PaPI genes were expressed specifically in petals and stamens, the same
expression patterns as those of class B MADS-box genes. These results indicated that PaTM6
and PaPI are homologues of AP3 and PI, respectively.
volume 17(2), 2015

Three criteria for characterizing flower opening profiles and display
values in cut spray-type carnation flowers
So Sugiyama, Shigeto Morita and Shigeru Satoh

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto 6068522, Japan. 1Kyoto Prefectural Institute of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seika Town, Kyoto
619-0224, Japan.
Key words: Flower bud opening, display value, pyridinedicarboxylic acids senescence, spraytype carnation, vase life.

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 92-95.
Full text PDF |
Abstract: Previously we have developed a method, which uses two criteria, ‘time to flower
opening’ and ‘vase life’, for characterizing flower opening profiles in cut spray-type flowers of
carnation. These two criteria were used to evaluate the activities of flower preservatives,
which accelerate flower bud opening, resulting in shortening the time to flower opening, and
delay senescence, resulting in extension of vase life. In the present study, we developed the
third criterion ‘gross flower opening’ which characterizes the ability of flower buds to open.
Using this criterion the activity of analogs of pyridinedicarboxylic acids was successfully
evaluated in addition to the previously-reported evaluation of their activity of acceleration of
flower bud opening and extension of vase life.
volume 17(2), 2015

Evaluation of sensors for sensing characteristics and field of view for
variable rate technology in grape vineyards in North Dakota
Ganesh C. Bora, Purbasha Mistry and Dongqing Lin

Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo,
USA, 1Natural Resource Program, North Dakota State University, Fargo, USA.
Key words: Vineyards, sensors, variable rate technology (VRT), tree-sensing

Journal of Applied Horticulture, 2015, volume 17, issue 2, pages 96-100.

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