45x45 Final Poster Ronak Chhaya (PDF)

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An early childhood vigilance test of attention in preschool-age
Ugandan children perinatally exposed to HIV
Chhaya, Ronak1; Weiss, Jonathan1; Seffren, Victoria2; Sikorskii, Alla3; Familiar, Itziar4; Ruiseñor-Escudero',
Horacio4; Nakasujja, Noeline5; Giordani, Bruno6; Boivin, Michael4,7,6

State University College of Human Medicine, 2University of Michigan School of Public Health, 3Michigan State University Department of Statistics,
4Michigan State University Department of Psychiatry, 5Makerere University Department of Psychiatry 6University of Michigan Department of Psychiatry
7Michigan State University Department of Neurology & Ophthalmology



Over 1.2 million Ugandan children are uninfected
but at risk from compromised caregiving due to HIV
disease burden.

•The modified FTII was administered to 31 noninfected Ugandan infants perinatally exposed to
HIV, 6-12 months of age (11 boys; M=0.69 yrs,
SD=0.14; 20 girls; M=0.79, SD=0.15).
•10 series of faces are presented in a repeated
pattern for a fixed presentation length.

HIV infection in mothers can disrupt
neurocognitive and behavioral development
through pro-inflammatory effects gestationally,
ARV effects pre- and post-natally during critical
periods of brain development, and disruptions to
caregiving from maternal illness.
We have previously demonstrated that attention
and impulsivity are related to memory and learning
measures in school-age Ugandan children
perinatally exposed to HIV.




25 seconds

15 seconds

Figure 1: Map of Uganda, Study Site: Tororo, Uganda

Repeat x10.
Pictures vary
by age, gender,
rotation, blackwhite, and

•Tobii X2-30 infrared camera programmed for
pupil detection of gaze direction and duration.

•The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII)
uses gaze length to familiar and unfamiliar
human faces to gauge working memory in
•Our modified FTII uses an automated eyetracking instrument to measure infant gaze
•This pilot study was conducted to validate the
use of new eye-tracking. technology in this
field of research.

•Modified Fagan results were correlated with
performance on the Mullen Scales of Early
Learning (MSEL) time, which provides a
composite measure of fluid intelligence.

Two faces are
shown to the
infant to
preference for
the unfamiliar

• Infants spent significantly more time
gazing at the novel picture than
familiar over 10 novelty preference
trials (t=9.17, P<0.001).
• Boys tended to look at the faces
longer than girls (t=1.98, P=0.06). The
MSEL was correlated with overall time
spent looking at the video (r=0.52,
• The MSEL Fine Motor scale, which
measures visuospatial working
memory requiring a motor response,
was correlated with
• gaze length at novel faces
(r=0.40, P=0.03),
• gaze length at familiar faces
(r=0.38, P=0.04), and
• overall gaze length during
the video (r=0.54, P=0.002).

•Our modified Fagan test for
Uganda resulted in a sensitive
working memory measure predictive
of overall child development.
•Use of eye scanning technology in
infants can provide an accurate
neurocognitive outcomes for
evaluating risk and resilience in lowresource settings for at-risk children.

These findings suggest that eye
tracking technology can improve the
sensitivity, validity and reliability of
neurocognitive measures in infants
in low-resource settings (novelty
preference and gaze length measured
by eye tracking).

Special thanks to:

Visual Reception Scale

Fine Motor Scale

Input: Intrasensory
Visual Processing

Input: Intrasensory

• The MSU Global Innovation Scholars
• MISC Research Team in Tororo, Uganda.
• Michigan State University College of
Human Medicine Global Outreach

Visual Processing

Accurate pupil
detection using

(output minimal)

Output: Fine Motor

Receptive Language Scale
Input: Intrasensory
(output minimal)

Input: Intrasensory
(output minimal)

Expressive Language Scale
Input: Intrasensory
Visual Processing
Output: Language

This research was funded by:
NIH RO1 HD070723 (PIs: Boivin, Bass)

Contact: boivin@msu.edu

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