Matko Soric Doktorat 2015 .pdf

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Title: Koncept etike u 'povijesnom mišljenju' Milana Kangrge
Author: Matko Sorić

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Filozofski fakultet

Matko Sorić

KONCEPT ETIKE U “POVIJESNOM
MIŠLJENJU” MILANA KANGRGE

DOKTORSKI RAD

Mentor:
prof. dr. sc. Lino Veljak

Zagreb, 2015.

Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences

Matko Sorić

THE NOTION OF ETHICS IN MILAN
KANGRGA'S “HISTORICAL THINKING”

DOCTORAL THESIS

Supervisor:
prof. dr. sc. Lino Veljak

Zagreb, 2015.

PODACI O MENTORU
Prof. dr. sc. Lino Veljak rođen je 1950. u Rijeci, diplomirao (1973), magistrirao
(1976: «Filozofijske osnove teorije odraza») i doktorirao (1982: «Filozofija prakse
Antonija Gramscija») na Filozofskom fakultetu u Zagrebu. Od 1974. do 1976. nastavnik
filozofije i logike na Drugoj gimnaziji u Zagrebu, 1976. asistent u Institutu za filozofiju
Sveučilišta u Zagrebu (od 1978. Odjel za povijest filozofije Centra za povijesne znanosti,
gdje je 1978. stekao suradničko zvanje znanstvenog asistenta). U istom zvanju radi od
1979. na Katedri za teorijsku filozofiju Odsjeka za filozofiju na Filozofskom fakultetu u
Zagrebu, 1983. izabran u zvanje docenta, 1990. u zvanje izvanrednog profesora, a 2002.
u zvanje redovitog profesora.
Od 1992. predstojnik Katedre za ontologiju. Dužnost pročelnika Odsjeka za
filozofiju privremeno obavljao 1982/83. Od 1992. do 1994. te od 2006. do 2010. bio
pročelnik Odsjeka.
Akad. godine 1990/91. boravio kao Humboldtov stipendist na Sveučilištu u
Frankfurtu. Gostovao na većem broju domaćih i inozemnih sveučilišta. Od 2001. do 2010.
dopunski predavao filozofiju povijesti na Odsjeku za filozofiju Filozofskog fakulteta
Sveučilišta u Rijeci, a kasnije i na Filozofskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Splitu, kao i na
Odjelu za filozofiju Sveučilišta u Zadru.
Bio voditelj nekoliko znanstveno-istraživačkih projekata, član je raznih
uredništava i savjeta filozofskih časopisa i u više navrata član Upravnog odbora
Hrvatskog filozofskog društva. Voditelj poslijediplomskog studija filozofije na
Filozofskom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Pored više stotina znanstvenih i stručnih
članaka objavio je odnosno uredio i sljedeće knjige:


Veljak, Lino. 1979. Marksizam i teorija odraza. Zagreb: Naprijed.



Veljak, Lino. 1983. Filozofija prakse Antonija Gramscija. Beograd: SIC.



Veljak, Lino. 1988. Horizont metafizike, Zagreb: Hrvatsko filozofsko društvo.



Veljak, Lino. 1990. Raspuća epohe. Zagreb: Radna zajednica RK SSOH.



Veljak, Lino, ur. 2000. Človek-demokracia-poznanie. Bratislava: Kalligram.



Veljak, Lino i dr., ur. 2002. Između autoritarizma i demokratije I: Srbija, Crna
Gora, Hrvatska – Institucionalni okviri. Beograd: CEDET.

i



Veljak, Lino i dr., ur. 2003. Between Authoritarianism and Democracy: Serbia,
Montenegro, Croatia – Institutional Framework. Belgrade: CEDET.



Veljak, Lino. 2004. Od ontologije do filozofije povijesti, Zagreb: Hrvatsko
filozofsko društvo.



Veljak, Lino i dr., ur. 2004. Između autoritarizma i demokratije: Srbija, Crna
Gora, Hrvatska – Civilno društvo i politička kultura. Beograd: CEDET.



Veljak, Lino i dr., ur. 2005. Between Authoritarianism and Democracy: Serbia,
Montenegro, Croatia – Civil Society and Political Culture, Belgrade: CEDET.



Veljak, Lino, ur. 2007. Gajo Petrović – čovjek i filozof. Zagreb: FFpress.



Veljak, Lino, ur. 2010. Filozofija i suvremenost. Zbornik radova s konferencije
povodom 80. obljetnice rođenja Danila Pejovića. Zagreb: FFpress.



Veljak, Lino. 2010. Prilozi kritici lažnih alternativa. Beograd: Otkrovenje.



Veljak, Lino, ur. 2014. Gajo Petrović, filozof iz Karlovca. Zagreb: Hrvatsko
filozofsko društvo.



Veljak, Lino, ur. 2015. Znanost, filozofija i suvremenost. Zagreb: Hrvatsko
filozofsko društvo.

ii

SAŽETAK
Milan Kangrga (1923. – 2008.) bio je jedna od najvažnijih institucionalnih ličnosti
u hrvatskoj akademskoj filozofiji druge polovice dvadesetog stoljeća. Zbog
institucionalnog položaja, velikog broja produciranih bibliografskih jedinica i relativno
originalne artikulacije vlastitih teorijskih modela Kangrga zaslužuje da se njegova
filozofska ostavština profesionalno analizira, objasni i kritički preispita. Premda se čitavu
karijeru bavio etičkom problematikom, Kangrgu trebamo odrediti kao teoretičara društva,
odnosno kao socijalnog filozofa, pogotovo s obzirom na činjenicu da preuzima Hegelovu
kritiku Kantove individualističke etike svođenjem morala na običajnost. U svojoj kritici
etike, Kangrga smatra kako nema razlike između etike i morala, kako je svaki normativni
zahtjev nužno sam sebi protuslovan i time besmislen, te kako su normativni iskazi
svodljivi na društveni položaj moralnog subjekta. Cilj ove disertacije je predstaviti
Kangrginu poziciju na najbolji mogući način, pri čemu će se povijesno mišljenje tretirati
kao

sinteza

generičkog

kulturalizma,

radikalnog

modernizma,

socijalnog

konstruktivizma, epistemološkog antirealizma i ontološkog emergentizma. Rad će
također iznijeti mane Kangrgine filozofije koje se odnose na zanemarivanje
intersubjektivnog aspekta Hegelovog shvaćanja slobode i biološke dimenzije ljudskosti,
neodrživu teoriju djelovanja, pretjerano idealiziranje principa promjene kao uvjeta
moralnog djelovanja, te generalnu teorijsku nerazrađenost.
KLJUČNE RIJEČI: emergentizam, historija, kulturalizam, Milan Kangrga, modernizam,
praksa, sloboda, svijet.

iii

SUMMARY
Milan Kangrga (1923 - 2008) was one of the most prominent institutional
personae within the philosophy of the Croatian academia of the second half of the
twentieth century. Due to his institutional role, an extensive number of produced
bibliographic units, and a relatively original articulation of one's own theoretical models,
Kangrga deserves to have his philosophical legacy professionally analysed, explained,
and critically examined. Albeit he dedicated his entire career to ethics, Kangrga should
nonetheless be identified as a social philosopher, especially considering the fact that he
had taken up Hegel's critique of Kant's individualistic ethics in reducing morality to
ethical life. This thesis was written partly with the aim of establishing a critical evaluation
of Kangrga's position and partly with the aim of introducing Kangrga's position in the
best possible way and in line with Donald Davidson's hermeneutic principle of charity.
The most frequent and important motives of Kangrga's philosophy are
undoubtedly the genesis of human interaction, the functioning of social dynamic, the
limitation of knowledge imposed by material circumstances, and the historical
conditionality of the individual's existence. Despite the fact that Kangrga's name is
generally mentioned within the context of ethics and that he spent his career teaching at
the ethics department, the dominant focus of his interest remains the society to such an
extent that we are under obligation to reduce ethical issues to the social ones. In his
critique of ethics, Kangrga maintains that there is no difference between ethics and
morality, that every normative demand is necessarily in contradiction with itself and is
therefore meaningless, and that normative statements are reducible to the social status of
the moral subject. Influenced by Hegel, Kangrga interprets moral demands as an
articulation of values contained in the status of the social groups, not acknowledging
thereby the reflexive component of Hegel's theory of morality. Such model could be
classified under ethical reductionism of the social type, which means to state that what an
individual considers to be good is actually a reflexion of his/her social status, his/her role
within the society and the corresponding experience which accompanies it.
Is there a way to summarise Kangrga's social theory? Human beings are a unique
phenomena in the universe due to their freedom and consciousness. As opposed to nature
and animals, humans live in a constructed environment of culture and society. The
construction of the cultural state of affairs is carried out as a collective undertaking of the

iv

entire social community whereby natural resources are exploited and adapted to fit the
current needs and enable the possibility of developing new needs. By cooperating with
others via division of labour, individuals dedicate a part of their autonomy and time to the
manufacturing process in exchange for the opportunity to use the labour results of other
members of the society. As generations pass by, the results of collective work accumulate
in material infrastructures (schools, houses, roads, cars, pipelines, water supplies etc.),
intangible social forms of behaviour, cultural institutions (banks, schools, hospitals,
restaurants, money, marriage etc.), moral values, and in the knowledge and skills of the
members of the society. This collective process of nature transformation is called
practice. The institutionalised context constructed by practice is what Kangrga calls
history. Changes in the inert structure of history are historic (not historical) changes
because they affect future generations. A historical structure flexible enough to withstand
a continuous and conscious progress through modernisation is world. In short, these
would be the most important points of Kangrga's social theory.
The main indicator of Kangrga's modernism involves a completely uncritical
idealisation of change as a precursor to historic progress. Progress is the fundamental,
unifying category of modernisation processes, some of which include: the rejection of
tradition, intense division of labour, economic specialisation, population migration from
rural to urban areas, formalisation of human relations through positive laws, contracts and
bureaucracy, eradication of superstition, availability of books and knowledge, intensified
social and geographical mobility, women's rights advancement, manual labour alleviation
through the implementation of new technologies, massive production of standardised
goods, secularisation, individualisation, industrialisation, a higher degree of political
participation of the lowest members of the society, a reflexive interrogation of authority,
and an immense increase in social wealth. However, change is not the only necessity
needed in order to transition from a rural community to an urban society: the state of
modernity is in itself marked by continuous change, unending personal adaptation, overall
improvement and transformation of social structures. According to Robert Pippin, Hegel
is a paradigmatic representative of modernism, and in this regard, Kangrga is assuming
Hegel's position as well.
Wishing to explain individual action, Kangrga believes that people surpass causal
determinism by means of unconditioned mental states. Cognitive spontaneity results in

v


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