Protocols .pdf

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LB (Lysogeny Broth) – 1 L:
10 g Tryptone
10g NaCl
5g yeast extract
For agar plates add 15g agar

Standard digest
10 µl DNA
5 µl Buffer
1 µl Enzyme 1
1 µl Enzyme 2 (optional)
Ad 50 µl H2O

Buffer was chosen according to enzymes used.
NEBuffer 2.1 for EcoRI-HF/PstI
CutSmart for XbaI/SpeI
Reactions were scaled down if appropriate.

Standard Ligation
2 µl T4 DNA Ligase buffer
1 µl T4 DNA Ligase
X µl Vector
X µl Insert
Ad 20µl H2O

Miniprep standard method from division of biochemistry:
To screen for successful ligation or transformation, the plasmid DNA was extracted via Miniprep. This
method enables quick and efficient screening of many colonies for the desired plasmids.

Initially, a colony of E. coli is inoculated in 2 mL LB medium with antibiotic for selection. After
incubation overnight at 37°C, 1.5ml of the culture is centrifuged and the pellet is resuspended in 100
µL TE buffer with RNAse. 200 µL of Solution 2 is then added, containing SDS (sodium dodecyl
sulphate) and NaOH (sodium hydroxide), for alkaline lysis. This breaks the cell envelope and
denatures proteins and DNA. Adding 150 µL of Solution 3, 3M KAc, the pH of the mixture is
neutralized. Due to the neutralization, small plasmid DNA can renature, while the larger fragments of
genomic DNA and most proteins remain denatured and can be pelleted by centrifugation. The
supernatant, containing the plasmid DNA is then transferred to another tube and 1 mL Ethanol is
added to precipitate the DNA. This step and the subsequent washing with 0.5 mL 70% ethanol
remove some of the salts from the DNA. After washing, the DNA pellet was air-dried to remove all
ethanol and solved in approx. 30µL MQ-H2O. The resulting plasmid prep can then be analyzed via
restriction digest and agarose gel electrophoresis.

Transformation of chemically competent E. coli
The cells, stored at -80°C, were thawed on ice. 5µl Ligation reaction was pipetted onto the cells and
mixed gently. The cells were incubated on ice for 30 minutes. Heat shock at 42°C for 90 seconds
followed. After cooling down on ice for 5 minutes, 1ml LB medium was added and the cells were
regenerated by incubation at 37°C for approximately 60 minutes. After regeneration, the cells were
pelleted using a microcentrifuge and resuspended in 50µl medium. This suspension was then plated
on LB Agar containing the appropriate antibiotic for selection of the vector backbone. The plates
were incubated overnight at 37°C and analyzed for colony growth the following day.

Growth of biofilms
The substrate (glass slides) were placed in a petri dish which was then filled with medium containing
the appropriate selective antibiotic until the glass slides were barely submerged. Cells were then
added as wel as IPTG for immediate induction of curli production. This culture was incubated on a
rocking shaker for three days at room temperature. Medium was exchanged if the culture reached

Generation of competent cells
Scaled down to 10%
TB buffer
10 mM HEPES pH 6.7
15 mM CaCl2
55 mM MnCl2
250 mM KCl

Grow cells in 50ml LB to OD600 ~0.4, then chill on ice for 10 minutes, keep the cells cold from now
Centrifuge and resuspend pellet in 10ml cold TB
Centrifuge and resuspend pellet in 1.86ml cold TB
Add 140µl DMSO and incubate on ice for at least 10 minutes.
Aliquot 200µl each – should be enough for 10 transformations.
Freeze in liquid nitrogen and store at -80°C.

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