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introduction to chemical engineering ch (10) .pdf



Original filename: introduction to chemical engineering ch (10).pdf
Title: Chapter 10
Author: Ken Solen

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Chapter 10 – Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow
Reading Question 10.1:
All forms are operative in each of the scenarios. The dominant form changes with the
situation.
a. Convection is the main reason why the student feels colder. The increase in wind velocity
increases the convection coefficient and increases the transfer by this mechanism.
b. Conduction is the dominant mechanism. The physical contact with the solid bench allows
heat to be transferred by conduction from the part of the student’s anatomy in contact with
the bench to the bench.
c. Radiation is the dominant mechanism. Heat is being transferred from the flame to the
student by radiation.

Chapter 10 – Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow
Reading Question 10.2:
Radiation can take place in a vacuum and does not require a transfer medium. In contrast,
convection and conduction both require the presence of a transfer medium.

Chapter 10 – Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow
Reading Question 10.3:
Answers to this question will vary. Examples include:
Conduction:

Engine warms up as combustion occurs.
Chair warms as student sits on it.

Convection:

Blowing on food to cool it.

Radiation:

Sunlight through a window will warm even on a cold day.

Chapter 10 – Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow
Reading Question 10.4:
The two equations are identical in form, where the transfer rate is equal to the area (A)
multiplied by a coefficient (conductivity or diffusivity) times the change in driving force (ΔT
or Δc) divided by the length (Δx) over which that change occurs. The coefficient and driving
force are different for each equation. (Incidentally, the similarity implies that the physical
processes that cause the transfer are also similar.)

Chapter 10 – Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow
Reading Question 10.5:
The two equations are identical in form, where the transfer rate is equal to the area (A)
multiplied by a coefficient (mass-transfer coefficient or heat-transfer coefficient) times the
change in driving force (ΔT or Δc). The coefficient and driving force are different for each
equation. (Incidentally, the similarity implies that the physical processes that cause the
transfer are also similar.)

Chapter 10 – Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow
Reading Question 10.6:
It vaporizes. No, the temperature does not change because the liquid is saturated and any
additional heat will cause liquid to vaporize rather than change the temperature of the liquid.

Chapter 10 – Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow
Reading Question 10.7:
No, the temperature remains at the boiling point until all the water is boiled off. The water
does not get hotter.

Chapter 10 – Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow
Reading Question 10.9:
A runaway reactor is one in which an exothermic reaction produces more heat than is being
removed by the cooling system, thereby increasing temperature out of control. Preventative
measures include oversized and redundant cooling systems.

Chapter 10 – Answer Key, Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Tools for Today and Tomorrow
Reading Question 10.10:
The appropriate heat-transfer mechanisms are:
a. Convection
b. Conduction
c. Convection


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