شرح stress .pdf

File information


Original filename: شرح stress.pdf

This PDF 1.4 document has been generated by , and has been sent on pdf-archive.com on 22/02/2017 at 18:25, from IP address 197.39.x.x. The current document download page has been viewed 2046 times.
File size: 236 KB (7 pages).
Privacy: public file


Download original PDF file


شرح stress.pdf (PDF, 236 KB)


Share on social networks



Link to this file download page



Document preview


‫ﺷﺮح اﻟﺴﺘﺮﻳﺲ‬

‫ال‪ :stress‬ﻫﻮ اﻟﺘﺸﺪﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ‪ syllable‬ﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪ ,‬ﺑﺄن ﻧﻨﻄﻘﻪ أﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ‪.‬‬
‫*ال‪ stress‬ﻳﺨﺘﺺ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻓﻘﻂ ‪ , syllables‬ﻓﻼ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ وﺿﻊ ال‪ stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺮف أو ﺻﻮت ﻣﻌﻴﻦ‪ ,‬وﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ‪,‬‬
‫*ال‪ stress‬ﻻ ﻳﻮﺿﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻮا ‪schwa [∂] .‬‬
‫‪The schwa is: the vowel sound in many lightly pronounced unaccented syllables in words‬‬
‫‪of more than one syllable.‬‬
‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ال‪ schwa‬؟‬
‫ﻨﻄﻖ ﻛـ‪ vowel‬ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ً‬
‫ﺟﺪا‪,‬‬
‫ال‪ُschwa‬ﺗَ‬
‫داﺋﻤﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻧﺸﺪد ﻋﻠﻰ ال‪ vowel‬ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‪ ,‬واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻵﺧﺮ ﻧﻨﻄﻖ ال‪ vowel‬ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ً‬
‫أي ﻋﻨﺪ ﻧﻄﻖ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ً‬
‫ﺟﺪا‪.‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎل‪ , pencil :‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ ‪ pen‬ﻣﺸﺪد ‪ ,‬واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ ‪ cil‬ﺧﻔﻴﻒ‬
‫] ‪[ pens∂l‬‬
‫ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻨﻄﻖ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻧﻨﻄﻖ اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﺑﻨﺒﺮة أﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺎﻟـ‪ vowel‬اﻟﺬي ﻧﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ً‬
‫ﺟﺪا ﻫﻮ ﻋﺎدة ال‪schwa .‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻤﻮﺿﻊ اﻟـ‪stress :‬‬

‫ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ أﻣﻮر ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ال ‪stress‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ً‪:‬‬
‫أوﻻ‬

‫ﻫﻨﺎك ﻧﻮﻋﺎن ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ‪Syllables:‬‬
‫( ‪Heavy Syllables‬ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺛﻘﻴﻠﺔ )‬
‫( ‪Light Syllables‬ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ (‪.‬‬

‫ﻛﻴﻒ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ اﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﺧﻔﻴﻒ أو ﺛﻘﻴﻞ؟!‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎك ﺷﺮوط ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ اﻟﺜﻘﻴﻠﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ‪vowel‬ﺛﻘﻲل‬‫وال ‪vowel‬اﻟﺜﻘﻴﻞ ﻫﻮ ‪long vowels and diphthongs :‬‬
‫‪2-‬ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ‪1 consonants‬‬

‫أﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ اﻟﺨﻔﻴﻔﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬ﺗﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ‪vowel‬ﺧﻔﻲف‬‫وﻫﻮ‪ :‬ال‪short vowels‬‬
‫‪2-‬ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺼﻮت واﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻣﻦ ال ‪consonants‬ﻻ أﻛﺜﺮ‪.‬‬

‫ﻫﺬه اﻷﻣﺮ اﻷول اﻟﺬي ﻳﺠﺐ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ‪ :‬أﻧﻮاع اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ‬
‫____________________________________‬

‫اﻷﻣﺮ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ اﻟﻤﻘﺎطع‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎك ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺎت ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺐ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫اوﻻ ‪ante :‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎ ‪pen :‬‬
‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‪ult:‬‬

‫ﻓﺎﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ‪ultimalte = ult :‬‬
‫واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ = ‪penultimate = pen‬‬
‫واﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ = ‪untepenultimate = ante‬‬
‫ﻳﺠﺐ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ذﻟﻚ ً‬
‫ﺟﻴﺪا‪.‬‬
‫___________________________‬

‫اﻷﻣﺮ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‪ :‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪة وﺿﻊ ال‪Stress‬‬
‫ً ﻳﺠﺐ أن ﻧﻌﺮف ﻫﻞ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ أﻣﺎﻣﻨﺎ ﻓﻌﻞ ‪verb‬أو اﺳﻢ ‪noun ,‬‬
‫أوﻻ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ أن ﻧﺤﺪد ﻧﻮع اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻧﺘﺒﻊ اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة ﺑﺒﺴﺎﻃﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎل‪:‬‬
‫ً‪ :‬ﻧﺤﺪد ﻧﻮع اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ = ‪Ult :‬‬
‫أوﻻ‬
‫إن ﻛﺎن ً‬
‫ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺎ ) ﻳﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ‪vowel‬ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ‪ -‬ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑـ ‪consonant‬واﺣﺪ ﻓﻘﻂ ( ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﺴﻨﻀﻊ ال ‪stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال = ‪pen‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻢة‬

‫أﻣﺎ إن ﻛﺎن ﺛﻘﻴً‬
‫ﻼ ) ﻳﺤﺘﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ ‪vowel‬ﺛﻘﻴﻞ ‪ -‬ﻳﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺄﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ واﺣﺪ ‪consonant ) :‬‬
‫ﻓﺴﻨﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ ﻋﺪد اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ‪syllables‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﻄﺎة‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﻮا ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ال ‪stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال = ‪ult‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻷول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪2‬ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎﻧﻮا أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ال ‪stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال = ‪ante‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬‫‪:‬‬
‫ﻫﺬا ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎل‪.‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﺳﻤﺎء‪:‬‬
‫ً ‪ :‬ﺳﻨﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ ﻋﺪد اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻃﻊ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫أوﻻ‬
‫إن ﻛﺎن ﻋﺪدﻫﺎ ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ال‪ stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال‪ = pen‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫إن ﻛﺎن أﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﻄﻌﻴﻦ‪:‬‬

‫ﺳﻨﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ ال‪ vowel‬اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد ﻓﻲ ال‪ult :‬‬
‫‪ -1‬إن ﻛﺎن ﺛﻘﻴﻞ ) أي ‪ long vowel‬أو ‪ : ( diphthong‬ﺳﻨﻀﻊ ال‪ stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال‪ =ante‬اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻴﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬إن ﻛﺎن ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ) ‪ : ( short vowel‬ﻧﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ ال‪ : pen‬إن ﻛﺎن ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﺧﻔﻴﻒ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ال‪ stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال‪pen.‬‬
‫إن ﻛﺎن ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﺛﻘﻴﻞ‪ :‬ﻧﻀﻊ ال‪ stress‬ﻋﻠﻰ ال‪ante.‬‬

‫وﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ أوﺿﺢ ‪:‬‬

‫اﺑﺪا ﻣﻌﻜﻢ ﺑـ اﻟﻘﻮاﻋﺪ واﻻﻣﺜﻠﻪ ‪//‬‬
‫اﻟـ ‪stress‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻼﻳﺒﻞ اﻻول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﻠﻢه‬
‫* اﻟـﺴﺘﺮﻳﺲ ﻓﻲ اﻻﺳﻤﺎ " "‪nauns‬ﻳﻜﻮن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻘﻄﻊ اﻻول‪.‬‬
‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻞ اﻻﺳﻤﺎ اﻟﺴﺘﺮﻳﺲ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﺎرت اﻻول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﻠﻢه‬
‫ﻣﺜﻞ ‪present & export & china //‬‬

‫* اﻻﺳﺘﺮﻳﺲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺼﻔﺎات "" ‪adjectives‬‬
‫ﻳﻜﻮن ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒـﺂرت اﻻول ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﻠﻢة‬
‫ﻣﺜـﺂال ‪clever & happy //‬‬

‫ﻳـﺂﺗﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻼﻳﺒﻞ اﻻﺧﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻜﻠﻢة " ‪verbs‬اﻟﺴﺘﺮﻳﺲ ﻓﻲ اﻻﻓﻌﺎل " ‪2-‬‬
‫ﻣﺜـﺂآال ‪to present //‬‬

‫اﻟﺴﺘﺮﻳﺲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﺎرت اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻻﺧﻴﺮ ‪3-‬‬
‫وﻫﻲ اﻟﻠﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑـ ‪ic‬ﺗﺸﺪ اﻟﻤﻘﻊ اﻟﻠﻲ ﻗﺒﻠﻪا‬
‫ﻣﺜـﺂآال ‪geographic //‬‬
‫ا* ﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎات اﻟﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑـ ‪sion _ ion‬‬

‫ﻣﺜـﺂآال ‪television _ revelation //‬‬

‫اﻻﺳﺘﺮﻳﺲ ع اﻟﺴﻼﻳﺒﻞ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻗﺒﻞ اﻻﺧﻲر ‪4-‬‬
‫* اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎت اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑـ ‪cy - ty -phy -gy‬‬
‫ﻣﺜـﺂآآال‪democracy //‬‬
‫‪dependability‬‬
‫‪photography‬‬
‫‪geology‬‬
‫* اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎت اﻟﻠﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑـ ‪al‬‬
‫‪critical‬‬
‫‪geological‬‬

‫اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎت اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﻪ واﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺰﺋﻴﻦ ‪5-‬‬
‫* ﻟﻲ اﻻﺳﻤﺎء اﻟﺴﺘﺮﻳﺲ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻼﻳﺒﻞ اﻻول‬
‫ﻣﺜــﺂآال ‪blackbird //‬‬
‫‪greenhouse‬‬
‫* ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻤﺎت اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟـﺼﻔﺎت " "‪adjectives‬اﻟﺒﺎرت اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺴﻼﻳﺒﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺜـﺄآآآل‪bad-tempered //‬‬
‫‪old-fashioned‬‬
‫* ﻟﻠﻜﻠﻤﺎت اﻟﻤﺮﻛﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻻﻓﻌﺎل " "‪verebs‬اﻟﺴﺘﺮﻳﺲ ﻳﻜﻮن ﻓﻲ اﻟﺴﻼﻳﺒﻞ اﻟﺜﺎني‬
‫ﻣﺜﺂآآآل‪to understand //‬‬
‫‪to overflow‬‬

‫اﻳﻀﺎ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ اﺧﺮ‪:‬‬

‫ﻧﺒﺪأ ﺑﺎﻟﺠﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻮل‬

‫اول ﺷﻲ ﻻزم ﺗﻌﺮﻓﻮ ان ﻛﻞ ﺳﻠﻴﺒﻞ ﻻزم ﻳﻜﻮن ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﺮف ﻋﻠﺔ واﺣﺪ ﻓﻖط‬

‫ﻧﺒﺪا اول ﺷﻲ ﺗﺠﻴﺒﻲ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮب ﺗﻄﻠﻌﻲ ﻋﺪد اﻟﺴﻠﻴﺒﻞ ﻟﻬﺎ وﺗﻌﺪي اﺣﺮف اﻟﻌﻠﻪ اﻟﻠﻲ ﻓﻴﻪا‬

‫ﻣﺜﻼ ‪image‬ﻳﻄﻠﻊ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ‪3‬اﺣﺮف ﻋﻞة‬

‫ﺧﻠﺼﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺬا ﻧﺒﺪا ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪات‬

‫اول وﺣﺪة ﺗﺠﻴﺒﻲ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ وﺗﻌﺪي اﺣﺮف اﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﻧﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻃﻮل اﺣﺲن ‪1‬‬

‫زي ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ‪move‬ﻛﻢ ﺣﺮف ﻋﻠﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ‪2‬اوكي‬

‫اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة ﺗﻘﻮل ان اذا اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺗﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺑﺤﺮف ﻋﻠﺔ ﺳﺎﻛﻦ ﻳﻨﺤﺬف اوكي‬

‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺗﺴﻴﺮ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﺒﻞ واﺣﺪ‬

‫‪maintain‬ﻧﺠﻴﺐ ﻛﻤﺎن ﻛﻠﻤﺔ وﻧﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ‪4‬ﺣﺮوف ﻋﻠﺔ‬

‫اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة ﺗﻘﻮل اﻧﻮ اذا ﺣﺮوف اﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﺟﺎت ورا ﺑﻌﺾ ﻧﺤﺬف واﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﻳﺴﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺑﺪل ارﺑﻊ ﺗﺴﻴﺮ ‪2‬ﺗﺴﻴﺮ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﻴﺒﻠﻴﻦ ﻫﺬي اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ زي‬
‫اﻻدﻏﺎم ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺣﺮف دﺧﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺮف وﺳﺎرو واحد‬

‫اﺟﻴﺐ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﻋﺸﺎن ﺗﻔﻬﻤﻮ اﻛﺜﺮ ‪author‬ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ‪3‬اﺣﺮف ﻋﻠﺔ وﻻن ‪au‬ورا ﺑﻌﺾ‬
‫ﺣﻨﺤﺬف واﺣﺪ ﻳﺴﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺳﻠﻴﺒﻠﻲن‬

‫ﻧﺠﻴﺐ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﻪ ﻋﺸﺎن ﻧﻄﺒﻖ اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة اﻟﻠﻲ ﺑﻌﺪﻫﺎ اﻣﺎﻧﺘﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة ﻫﺬي ﻣﺎﻟﻘﻴﺖ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺎت ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ﺑﺲ ﺑﻜﺘﺐ اﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ اﻟﻠﻲ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻧﻌﺪ اﺣﺮف اﻟﻌﻠﺔ ﺣﺮﻓﻴﻦ ﻃﻴﺐ اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة ﺗﻘﻮل اذا ﺗﻜﺮر اﻟﺤﺮف ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ورا ﺑﻌﺾ ﻳﻨﺤﺬف واﺣﺪ ﻳﺴﻴﺮ ﻋﻨﺪﻧﺎ ‪pool‬ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻴﺒﻞ واﺣﺪ ﻓﻖط‬


Related documents


stress
audhrinn v023
conlang
img
cma phonotactics
post m 2007 a grammar of galo phd di

Link to this page


Permanent link

Use the permanent link to the download page to share your document on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, or directly with a contact by e-Mail, Messenger, Whatsapp, Line..

Short link

Use the short link to share your document on Twitter or by text message (SMS)

HTML Code

Copy the following HTML code to share your document on a Website or Blog

QR Code

QR Code link to PDF file شرح  stress.pdf