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International Criminal Court
Office of the Prosecutor
Post Office Box 19519
2500 CM The Hague
The Netherlands.
A Criminal Complaint Communication to the Office of the Prosecutor
Respectfully submitted by James C. Ryan, Ph.D.
Istanbul, Turkey
6 October 2014
Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War

Only the dead have seen the end of war.
—George Santayana
For as long as Winston can recall, Oceania has been in a constant state of war –
with whom it was at war is of neither importance nor consequence.
—George Orwell, 1984

James C. Ryan. Ph.D.
Ayşe Çavuş Caddesi 37/16
Suadiye 34740
İstanbul, TURKEY
T 0 535 935 1015
E-mail: jimryan62@yahoo.com

Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War


Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War

1. SUMMARY.........................................................................................


A. Misbegotten in a Crime..........................................................
B. The Benghazi Rat Line………………………………………….
C. Arms and the Men and Some Countries………………………
D. Intelligence Sharing……………………………………………..
E. The Premise for Legal Action…………………………………..
F. The Criminal Cabal………………………………………………
G. The Accused……………………………………………………..


A. Introduction.............................................................................
1. Summary of Submissions
2. Summary of Steps Sought from Office of the Prosecutor
B. Jurisdiction………………………………………………………..
1. On Grounds of Territoriality
2. On Grounds of Nationality
C. Admissibility………………………………………………………
1. On Grounds of Gravity,
2. On Grounds of Complementarity
3. On Grounds of Interests of Justice
D. Crimes within the Jurisdiction of the Court…………………...
E. Summary of Charges……………………………………………
G. Conclusion............................................................................
H. The Complainant………………………………………………..
1. Preamble: Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court……….
2. Foreign Fighters in Syria………………………………………………...
3. Media Evidentiary Extracts (chronological)……………………………







Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War

Since January 2011 the Syrian Arab Republic, a sovereign state with 18 million people, has
been under attack. Hundreds of thousands have died; three million have fled the country;
half the nation’s population has been displaced. The West, in particular the United States,
seeks, as seems usual, “regime change” and has enlisted the financial support of Saudi
Arabia and Qatar to get it. Turkey is the key implementer providing a staging area primarily
in the southern province of Hatay on the Syrian border. It also serves as a logistics base
affording housing, hospital support, training and a supply line across the border into Syria.
As the world and the United Nations now know, this border is porous, dangerous and
corrupt. A stream of trailer-trucks, shielded from inspection by Turkish intelligence agents,
regularly passes through the gates and disappears into this most savage war. This is the
rolling oil pipeline that finances the bestial offspring of the largely fictional “moderately
Islamic” Free Syria Army now variously known as ISID, ISIS, ISIL and/or IS. Whatever it’s
called, it’s the awful result of massive, aggressive collusion of the United States, Turkey,
Saudi Arabia and Qatar, enthusiastically supported by Jordan, a State Party signatory to the
Rome Statute and hence bound by the provisions of the Statute. These five constitute the
Criminal Cabal.1
Arab Spring, a knock-off label from Czechoslovakia’s Prague Spring of 1968, has drowned
North Africa and the Middle East in a sea of blood. Libya has failed into complete violence.
The Syrian people are on the run—millions have fled the country. The dubious “civil war” is a
full-blown catastrophe, with radical groups now attacking each other, and the most radical of
all, the Islamic State of Syria (ISIS), murdering, pillaging and beheading its way towards
Baghdad. Once thinking it could tell moderates from maniacs, once thinking it could trust the
prime minister of Turkey, America now flounders about how to nuance its the fight with its
own creation—ISIS—without helping the real objective, namely, waging a proxy (and
criminal) war of aggression using mercenaries against Syria and the duly constituted
government of President Bashar al-Assad.
This is the stupidest of quandaries, one caused by a criminal disregard for international law,
incredibly poor judgment and incredibly radical accomplices, in particular the government of
Turkey, specifically its former prime minister now president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. The
other accomplices—Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Jordan— are equally morally abject and
treacherous. It is a sordid off-key cabal, this criminal quintet, this Criminal Cabal, violating
international law with impunity. These arrogant five seem to draw their criminal strength from
the fact that, except for Jordan, none are signatories to the Rome Statute and hence
supposedly not subject to its provisions for humane behavior among law-abiding nations.
These four believe their misdeeds are outside the jurisdiction of the International Criminal
Court (ICC) and even the United Nations. These felonious four do what they please, say
what they like, incite war with their well-financed fanatical, mercenary hordes and inflict
horrendous criminal atrocities on men, women and children, to wit, humanity. And Jordan, a
signatory to the Rome Statute, betrays its promise and illegally collaborates with the Criminal
Illegal weapons support and training from a host of nations, many of them signatories to the
Rome Statute2, has spawned a monstrous, Islamic militant swarm, grown horrendously
violent on its diet of western arms and money. This fact is undeniable as will be shown and
as you may already well know. The danger is clear and present. So much so that the
monster’s benefactors now must try to destroy the monster they created. And by the usual


A State (nation) which becomes a Party to the Rome Statute accepts the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court
regarding the most serious crimes afflicting the international community: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and
the crime of aggression (Rome Statute, Article 5). Obviously those State Parties who aid and abet the commission of these
crimes by nations outside ICC jurisdiction will not be held harmless nor will the non-State Party (Rome Statute, Article 12).


Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War

way—high altitude bombing—guaranteed to harden the monster’s resolve and metastasize
its violent effect. All of which means that more innocent people will die. Such is what passes
for strategic thinking by the United States and its collaborators. Sadly, it is an old story. Such
is the horribly complicated nature of the Cabal’s crimes—a blowback beyond imagination.
Such is the reason for rendering this Complaint to the International Criminal Court (ICC). The
allegations are heinous: war crimes, crimes against humanity and the ultimate international
crime, aggression, indeed an evil thing.
The United States is not a signatory to the Rome Statute, nor is Turkey, Saudi Arabia or
Qatar. Jordan is, but its criminal behavior belies its signature. The Criminal Cabal ordered
the commission of ICC statutory crimes on, in, and over the respective territories of several
ICC member nations, Jordan, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania, for immediate
example. Therefore, the ICC has jurisdiction over the Accused for their statutory crimes in
accordance with Rome Statute Article 12(2)(a).
Importantly, pursuant to Article 27, those accused who operate in an official capacity as
head of state, member of government or government official are neither exempt from
criminal responsibility nor enjoy any immunity whatsoever that constrains the Court’s
jurisdiction. Additionally, there is no statute of limitation regarding the prosecution of these
crimes, to wit: violations of Article 7, Crimes against humanity and Article 8, Crime of
The Accused
Listed below are the Accused nations. Principal accused are those primary malefactor
nations most responsible for the crimes committed. Names and specific charges will be
proffered later.
Principal Accused:
United States of America
Saudi Arabia

Accessory Accused:
Great Britain*

* denotes a State Party signatory to the Rome Statute.
And now onward to the details wherein the devils always reside.


Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War

A. Misbegotten in a Crime
The carnage commenced on 20 March 2003 with a night cruise-missile attack on Baghdad
primarily by the United States. Dubbed shock-and-awe, based on deceit, that crime of
aggression rages still in unparalleled barbarity, in unparalleled illegality, in all its essential
evil. Neither in self-defense nor in accord with the United Nations Charter, American, British,
Australian, Polish and Danish military forces committed “the supreme international
crime…essentially an evil thing.” Such was the judgment of the International Military Tribunal
at Nuremberg regarding wars of aggression. According to the Tribunal, such wars were
essentially an evil thing...to initiate a war of aggression...is not only an
international crime; it is the supreme international crime, differing only from
other war crimes in that it contains within itself the accumulated evil of the
Today, there seems no stopping this evil. Millions dead, wounded and displaced. Syria, and
again Iraq, both under attack from a reincarnated, vicious Mujahedeen, variously called ISIL,
ISID, ISID, and IS. This mercenary mob has been created and funded by America and its
equally ambitious, criminal partners. Why? Lacking the will of its citizens to continue the
perpetual war madness on their account (“No boots on the ground!”) a discouraged and
confused America and a servile NATO has resorted to the use of proxy armies—mercenary
guns for hire—to do its dirty work of aggression. Such violence and callous disregard for
international law have erased national borders, setting in flight millions of refugees. All
secular Middle Eastern nations have been destroyed. To what end? Is it oil? Religion?
Unashamed political ambition? Is it democracy? Security? The security of the grave? It is too
late for labels! Time is of the essence. It is time to stop. The rule of law must finally and at
long last be enforced. Without this, the consequences are dire—perpetual war.
The invasion of Iraq in 2003 was illegal. The undeclared war and current bombing campaign
in Syria is illegal. Both countries are now overrun by renegade bands of Islamic militants
seeking to establish their own Islamic state within the territory of existing nations, a clear
crime of aggression. However outrageously bestial these mercenary gangs behave cannot
sever the responsibility from their foundational roots that reside in the Criminal Cabal for
Perpetual War, that is, American and its primary collaborators—Turkey, Saudi Arabia and
Qatar and Jordan. Nor can this evil be divorced from the numerous enablers and suppliers
that support America’s illegal scheme.
Guns and knives do not work by themselves. The deliverers of deadly weapons into the
hands of terrorist mercenaries bear the full burden for how they are used. For European
Union weapons mongers like Belgium, the European Common Position on Arms Sales sets
precise criteria regarding the sales of such weapons.4 These criteria seem to have been
disregarded. Furthermore, many of these collaborating countries are State Party Signatories
to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, thus culpable, thus liable for
Robert Jackson, the chief prosecutor at the Nuremberg Tribunal, called war of aggression
"the greatest menace of our times." What more can be added? We have eyes. Innocent
people are suffering so grievously and we have learned so little.

Broomhall, Bruce. (2 ed.). Oxford University Press, p. 46. ISBN 978-0-19-925600-6.
Cohn, Marjorie. Aggressive War: Supreme International Crime, International Clearing House.
11 September 2004 http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article7249.htm



Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War

B. The Benghazi Rat Line
A “rat line” is an escape route. There were Nazi and fascist rat lines from various sites in
Europe to South America at the close of World War II. In CIA parlance it’s a back channel, in
this particular case, from Benghazi, Libya into Syria. Strange indeed to set this up. Strange
because UN Security Council Resolution 1970 (26 Feb. 2011) was designed to have an
immediate ceasefire and provided for an arms embargo regarding Libya.5 It did not seem
strange at the time because no one knew about the rat line. Even stranger, by hindsight, was
the subsequent resolution 1973 that provided for a no-fly zone. Enacted on 17 March 2011,
it removed the arms embargo provisions from the earlier resolution.6 Therein resided the
secret loophole that gave pseudo-legitimacy for the Benghazi Rat Line. One could now bring
in arms for humanitarian purposes, that is, to protect the Libyan civilians who were already
being bombed by NATO. And when that murderous fiasco was over and Muammar Gaddaffi
was disemboweled and anal raped, the arms were needed elsewhere as the Arab Spring
sprung to Syria. And so began the illicit arms transfer system, initially managed by CIA head,
David Petraeus, and later, and disastrously, by the prime minister of Turkey who directed the
weapons flow to radical groups in Syria.7
In this manner, the arms embargo in Libya was violated and the weapons stocks already
huge, grew and grew.8 Early in 2012 the Rat Line began to ship massive amounts of
weapons, much of it from Muammar Gaddafi’s arsenals. Its destination? Southern Turkey, to
the province of Hatay on the northern Syrian border. It’s ultimate destination? Radical
elements of the opposition to the Syrian government of Bashar al-Assad. Recep Tayyip
Erdoğan, the Turkish prime minister, suddenly shifted from bosom buddy to vitriolic,
bombastic hater of Syria’s Bashar al-Assad. (He had earlier pulled the same two-faced trick
on Muammar Gaddafi.)9 Erdoğan made little effort to hide his agenda. And his agenda was


UN Security Council Resolution 1970, para. 9.

UN Security Council Resolution 1973, para. 4.

Foreign nations’ proxy war in Syria creates chaos. Washington Post, David Ignatius. 2 October 2014.

See: e.g., Libya: foreign mercenaries terrorising citizens, The Telegraph, By Adrian Blomfield, Salloum, February 23, 2011
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8343959/Libya-foreign-mercenaries-terrorisingcitizens.html; Libyan Rebels Say They’re Being Sent Weapons, The New York Times, By ROD NORDLAND April 16, 2011
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/17/world/africa/17libya.html?_r=2&; La France a parachuté des armes aux rebelles libyens, Le
Figaro, Philippe Gelie, Juin 28, 2011, http://www.lefigaro.fr/international/2011/06/28/01003-20110628ARTFIG00704-la-francea-parachute-des-armes-aux-rebelles-libyens.php

Erdogan Receives Gaddafi Human Rights Prize, Tripoli Post, 6 December 2010,
http://www.tripolipost.com/articledetail.asp?c=1&i=5195; [Turkish] PM rules out NATO intervention in Libya
Today’s Zaman, February 28, 2011, http://www.todayszaman.com/news-236953-pm-rules-out-nato-intervention-in-libya.html;
Parliament OKs Turkey's involvement in Libya, The Oakland Press, March 24, 2011,
http://www.theoaklandpress.com/general-news/20110324/parliament-oks-turkeys-involvement-in-libya; Turkey Recognizes
Libyan Rebels, Gives $300 Million, AP Reports Bloomberg, by Zaid Sabah and Kim Chipman, July 4, 2011,
In Great Company: Erdogan Wins Gaddafi Human Rights Prize, Asbarez.com, March 2, 2011, http://asbarez.com/93789/ingreat-company-erdogan-wins-gaddafi-human-rights-prize/;


Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War

to fund radical Sunni groups, in particular, al-Nusra, a well-known affiliate of al-Qaeda. The
United States and Great Britain intelligence services obtained the weapons through front
companies and organized the transfer operation. Great Britain’s intelligence service, MI6,
was a cover to enable the CIA to call the “intelligence” relationship a “liaison” which
somehow avoided the requirement to report an illicit operation like this to the US Congress.
Loopholes, always bloody loopholes.
Funding for the Rat Line came from Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. Airports in Turkey
including the US airbase at Incirlik were used extensively. Heavy-freight handling trucks with
TIR designations were used on the ground.10 After the September 2012 attack on the US
consulate, the CIA pulled out. The Rat Line had lengthened its reach beyond Benghazi and
all roads and air routes now led to Turkey, in particular Hatay and its gates opening to the
bloody inferno called Syria. Their lintels should have read, as Dante wrote over the entrance
to hell, “Abandon all hope, you who enter here.”
And post-CIA, who now ran the show? Turkey and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.11 The US knew
in early 2013 that the Turkish government, its intelligence service (M.I.T.) and the
Gendarmes were enabling weapons and other lethal equipment to get into the hands of alNusra.12 So did most Turks who chose to notice. The airports were full of jihadists, in
particular on flights from Istanbul to Hatay Airport.
What lay ahead was the sarin gas attack fiascos, the Turkish false-flag provocations, the
gold-for-oil evasions of UN sanctions, and today, the support of the Turkish government for
the ISID terrorist group, the child born of Libyan terrorist seed, cultured by Turkey and now
pillaging Iraq and Syria with apocalyptic, satanic violence. This is Turkey today. America’s
(and the Criminal Cabal’s) willing stooge, a duplicitous government that endangers its own
people and indeed humanity.13

C. Arms and the Men and Some Countries
Arms were and are smuggled into Syria through a vast, not-so-secret network of sea and
land routes primarily using Turkey as a huge logistical depot and diligent freight-forwarding
agent. And business was very good. Former Soviet block nations like Bulgaria and Rumania
had huge stockpiles of soviet-era military weapons. The Belgian-manufactured FN FAL
assault rifle is in great demand due to its superior range and accuracy vis-à-vis the AK-47.
Large numbers of Belgian weapons have been purchased by Qatar for re-export purposes.
All of these nations involved in the illicit arms transfer scheme—Jordan, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Croatia, France, Great Britain and Rumania—are state party signatories to the Rome
Statute hence fall within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court.
Belgium is the largest manufacturer of military small arms in Europe through its governmentowned firm, FN-Herstal, which also owns two US-based weapons manufacturers—


TIR convention. International Road Transports (Transports Internationaux Routiers) TIR,

See the undocumented but eminently reasonable: The Red Line and the Rat Line, London Review of Books, by Seymour M.
Hersh, 17 April 2014, http://www.lrb.co.uk/v36/n08/seymour-m-hersh/the-red-line-and-the-rat-line

Biden’s admission: US allies armed ISIS, World Socialist Web, Patrick Martin. 6 October 2014

C.I.A. Said to Aid in Steering Arms to Syrian Opposition, New York Times, by ERIC SCHMITT, June 21, 2012,


Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War

Winchester and Browning. Herstal’s two largest customers are the United States and Saudi
Arabia. It also does significant business with Qatar. Indeed FN-Herstal seems to be the
world’s weapon-maker of choice. Customers of FN-Herstal like France, Egypt, Qatar and the
United Arab Emirates were eager suppliers to the Libyan opposition. Qatar was so eager
that it was in breach of UN Resolution 1970 that imposed an arms embargo on 26 February
2011. Furthermore, Qatar and other “customers” may have violated agreements not to reexport these weapons. Much of the Libyan weaponry is now in Syria thanks to the Benghazi
Rat Line.14
Those European Union members who have exported military weaponry and technology to
Libya and Syria seem to be in broad and reprehensible violation of the spirit and letter of the
2008 European Common Position on Arms Exports. Clearly, even a cursory reading of its
criteria would dictate a total prohibition of arms exports.15 Article 2(2)(a) and (2)(d) clearly
state the need to examine the human rights conditions in the country and, most importantly,
“the need not to affect adversely regional stability in any significant way.” Obviously there
was little attention paid to these and any other criteria in this important instrument designed
to control arms exportation. Yesterday’s Benghazi Rat Line bred today’s slaughter house in
The men and, sadly, the women and even the children, some as young as seven years old,16
that mostly flow through Turkey come from more than 80 countries. There were 7,000 in
Syria in January 2014, now it’s at least double that. No one knows for sure, least of all
Turkey’s border guards. Not when there is an al-Nusra promoting prime minister who has yet
to call ISID a terror group. Not where the terrorist oil is smuggled into Turkey, a NATO
member, for quick, cheap sale, thus financing terrorist violence and filling more than a few
Turkish pockets.17 Not when hospitals in southern Turkey regularly treat wounded terrorists.
Turkey is indeed a staging area, a fully operating logistical base and supply line for the
terrorist assault on Syria. So it is no surprise that Richard Barrett notes in his exacting
analysis entitled Foreign Fighters in Syria,


See, e.g., Syria Crisis: Where Syrian Fighters Get Their Weapons From, Reuters, By Jonathan Saul and Mariam Karouny
July 13, 2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/13/syria-crisis-rebels-weapons_n_1670780.html; Profit and Proliferation:
A Special Report on Belgian Arms in the Arab Uprising, Part I, AT WAR New York Times, By DAMIEN SPLEETERS
April 5, 2012, http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/05/profit-and-proliferation-a-special-report-on-belgian-arms-in-the-arabuprising-part-i/; Profit and Proliferation, Part 2: Will Belgian Arms End Up in Syria?, AT WAR New York Times, by DAMIEN
SPLEETERS, April 6, 2012, http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/06/profit-and-proliferation-part-2-will-belgian-arms-end-upin-syria/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0, C.I.A. Said to Aid in Steering Arms to Syrian Opposition, New York Times, by ERIC
SCHMITT, June 21, 2012, ww.nytimes.com/2012/06/21/world/middleeast/cia-said-to-aid-in-steering-arms-to-syrianrebels.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0; UN Security Council Resolution 1970, http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/2B57BBA2-07D94C35-B45E-EED275080E87/0/N1124558.pdf; France admits it directly supplied arms to Syrian “rebels”, World Socialist Web,
By Pierre Mabut, 27 August 2014, http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2014/08/27/frsy-a27.html; The US Is Openly Sending Heavy
Weapons From Libya To Syrian Rebels, GEOFFREY INGERSOLL AND MICHAEL B KELLEY, December 9, 2012,

See, e.g., Council of the European Union, ‘European Union Code of Conduct on Arms Exports’, 8675/2/98 Rev 2, 5 June
1998; and Council Common Position 2008/944/CFSP of 8 December 2008 defining common rules governing control of exports
of military technology and equipment, Official Journal of the European Union, L335, 8 Dec.2008.
EU Non-Proliferation Consortium, January 2012, The Review of the EU Common Position on Arms Exports,

ISIS Is Recruiting And Training Children To Fight, http://www.businessinsider.com/isis-recruiting-children-war-crimes-2014-8.
The UN Human Rights Commission Report, A/HRC/27/60,13 August 2014 said that this case should be referred to the
International Criminal Court.

How Isil is funded, trained and operating in Iraq and Syria.


Criminal Carnage in Syria by the Criminal Cabal for Perpetual War

that most extremist groups are concentrated in the North of the country, and so are
the first that many foreigners meet when they cross the Turkish border.18
Approximately one-half of the countries providing citizens to fight as illegal mercenaries in
Syria are State Parties to the Rome Statute.19 Reports abound of individual monthly salaries
paid by Saudi Arabia and Qatar of $500-2000.
So what about the responsibility to control this flood of people and armaments into Turkey by
air and sea? Aren’t visas required? Surely non-Syrians, primarily westerners, exiting
southern Turkey to enter Syria have but one purpose: violence. Porosity is the word; the
Turkish border checkpoints have the solidity and diligence of a summer breeze.20 Trucks
enter uninspected, indeed often protected from scrutiny by Turkish authorities.21
And what about the responsibility of the countries allowing their primarily youthful22 citizens
to travel unhindered and unchecked to the most dangerous place in the world. Are these
nations, particularly those that are signatories to the Rome Statute, not violating the war
crime provisions of that statute? Are not these signatory nations, either willfully or
negligently, aiding and abetting the commission of grave crimes against humanity by their
failure to adequately supervise the passage of their citizens into war-ravaged Syria? And by
enabling their citizens to join with mercenary forces to commit heinous crimes, aren’t these
countries in breach of the Rome Statute?
There are two bold violators, signatories of the Rome Statute, worth citing, to wit, the
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Republic of Croatia. In clear violation of Article 8(b),
Jordan has been a CIA training center for terrorist mercenaries dedicated to overthrowing
the Syrian government. Furthermore, Jordanian, Saudi and Qatari cargo transport airplanes
have been widely used to transport arms to Esenboğa Airport near Ankara as well as to
other Turkish and Jordanian airports. Moreover, CIA operatives have been regularly
assisting Saudi Arabia to procure weapons from Croatia. These caches have been flown to
Jordan on Jordanian transport planes for transfer to southern Turkey for fast forwarding to
terrorist mercenaries.23
What can be made of nations like this? They sign to abide by the provisions of the Rome
Statute, an admirable, moral act taken with many other nations to stand against the “grave
crimes that threaten the peace, security and well-being of the world.” As signatories to the
Rome Statute, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, France, Great Britain, Rumania and Jordan all
resolved to agree “to guarantee lasting respect for and the enforcement of international


Foreign Fighters in Syria, June 2014. Richard Barrett, P. 24, http://en.calameo.com/read/000009779f631011a5baa
Ibid., Pp.13,14.


See, e.g., Turkey's Syria borders an open door for smugglers, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/ru/originals/2014/04/turkeysyria-borders-smuggling-guns-conflict-kurds-pkk-isis.html#; "TIR'ı verin yoksa çatışma çıkar", http://www.haber7.com/guncel/haber/1124219tiri-verin-yoksa-catisma-cikar; As Turkey turned blind eye, ISIS took advantage, http://news.yahoo.com/turkey-turned-blind-eye-isis031003793.html

Turkey declares vanishing truck to Syria 'state secret', http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/01/vanished-turkishtruck-state-secret.html#

Op.cit.,Barrett, P. 15. “the typical age range is 18-29”


See, e.g., CIA ramping up covert training program for moderate Syrian rebels,
http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/cia-ramping-up-covert-training-program-for-moderate-syrianrebels/2013/10/02/a0bba084-2af6-11e3-8ade-a1f23cda135e_story.html; I LEARNED TO FIGHT LIKE AN AMERICAN AT THE
FSA TRAINING CAMP IN JORDAN, http://www.vice.com/en_uk/read/syria-deraa-USA-Jordan-FSA-regime-CIA; CIA Activities
in Syria: US Never Stops to Step on Same Rake, http://www.globalresearch.ca/cia-activities-in-syria-us-never-stops-to-step-onsame-rake/5353324; Syrie : l'opération anti-Assad a commence,


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