WATCHMAN aarm presentation gerling Original doc .pdf
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WATer CHerenkov Monitoring
MARS Measurements of the Fast Neutron
for the WATCHMAN Collaboration
Sandia National Laboratories, California
For the WATCHMAN Collaboration
Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated
by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation,
for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under
Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND Number 2013-9907P
This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S.
of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National
• WATCHMAN Overview
• Neutron Backgrounds at Depth
• Multiplicity And Recoil Spectrometer Design (MARS)
• System Testing and Deployment
• Deployment and Results
A remote reactor monitoring demonstration is
part of the NNSA Strategic Plan
FY12 start for site selection and background
Site has been selected and preliminary
detector design nearing completion.
FY14 decision point for full detector, with input
FY16 start of construction
The WATCHMAN Collaboration
A.Bernstein, N. Bowden, S. Dazeley, D.
P. Marleau, J. Brennan, M. Gerling, K. Hulin,
J. Steele, M. Sweany
U of Hawaii
K. Van Bibber, C. Roecker, T. Shokair
R. Svoboda, M. Bergevin, M. Askins
J. Learned, J.Murillo
M. Vagins, M. Smy, Bill Kropp
B. Vogelaar, S.D. Rountree, C. Mariani
2 National Laboratories
Many person-decades of experience with
large neutrino detector design and use
Will add ~2-4 more groups for full project
Demonstration (Perry NGS to IMB cavern)
Perry Reactor Nuclear Generating Station to IMB
cavern in the Fairport Salt Mine (Ohio)
• 1434 m.w.e.
• cavity was 18m x 17m x 22.5m
• ~13 km standoff
• 3875 MWth
• Existing cavern in active mine (IMB).
• Ease of access (near Cleveland).
• Large depth for low background (more
• Old cavern requires
renovation. Cost estimates
are being pursued.
WATer CHerenkov Monitoring
Detector has target volume of 10.8x10.8
meter right cylinder of 0.1 % gadoliniumdoped water (1 kton).
Capture locations can be resolved with 1
meter vertex resolution (sigma) virtual
1.0 meter buffer volume outside of fiducial.
And 1.5 meter active veto
Previous reactor monitoring measurements
relied on being situated in close (~25 m)
proximity to the reactor.
Anti-neutrino undergoes inverse-beta decay.
Observe positron annihilation, 30us later
observe the Gd shower.
• Exactly two Cerenkov flashes
• within ~100 microseconds
• Within a ~ 1 cubic meter voxel
Detector Fiducial Mass
Perry reactor antineutrino rate
Total background (RMSIM,prelim.)
Days to 3 sigma detection of
change in power (ON/OFF)
meters water equiv.
<30 days is our target
Preliminary Background/Signal Estimates
Scaling up the detector in order to remotely monitor a reactor from kilometer
distances requires an increased understanding of the backgrounds:
Fast neutron rate capable of producing
two correlated events in a detector.
Muongenic beta delayed precursors
> 50 MeV n
Two Backgrounds, Two Detectors
MARS: Fast Neutron
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