WATCHMAN aarm presentation gerling Original doc .pdf

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WATer CHerenkov Monitoring
of Anti-Neutrinos
MARS Measurements of the Fast Neutron
Mark Gerling
for the WATCHMAN Collaboration
Background
at Depth

Mark Gerling
Sandia National Laboratories, California
For the WATCHMAN Collaboration

Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated
by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation,
for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under
Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND Number 2013-9907P

SAND# 2014-2231C

This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S.
Department
of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
under contract
DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National
Security, LLC

1

Outline
• WATCHMAN Overview
• Neutron Backgrounds at Depth
• Multiplicity And Recoil Spectrometer Design (MARS)
• System Testing and Deployment
• Deployment and Results

2

 A remote reactor monitoring demonstration is

part of the NNSA Strategic Plan
Program Highlights
 FY12 start for site selection and background

estimates
 Site has been selected and preliminary

detector design nearing completion.
 FY14 decision point for full detector, with input

from DOE-SC-HEP
 FY16 start of construction

The WATCHMAN Collaboration
A.Bernstein, N. Bowden, S. Dazeley, D.
Dobie
P. Marleau, J. Brennan, M. Gerling, K. Hulin,
J. Steele, M. Sweany
UC Berkeley

UC Davis
U of Hawaii
Hawaii Pacific

UC Irvine
Virginia Tech

K. Van Bibber, C. Roecker, T. Shokair
R. Svoboda, M. Bergevin, M. Askins

J. Learned, J.Murillo
S. Dye
M. Vagins, M. Smy, Bill Kropp

B. Vogelaar, S.D. Rountree, C. Mariani




4

25 collaborators
2 National Laboratories
6 Universities
15 physicists
5 engineers
2 Post-docs
3 Ph.Ds

Many person-decades of experience with
large neutrino detector design and use
Will add ~2-4 more groups for full project

SuperKamiokande
SNO
IMB
KamLAND
Double Chooz

Demonstration (Perry NGS to IMB cavern)
IMB

Perry Reactor Nuclear Generating Station to IMB
cavern in the Fairport Salt Mine (Ohio)
• 1434 m.w.e.
• cavity was 18m x 17m x 22.5m
• ~13 km standoff
• 3875 MWth
Pros
• Existing cavern in active mine (IMB).
• Ease of access (near Cleveland).
• Large depth for low background (more
physics overlap).
Cons
• Old cavern requires
renovation. Cost estimates
are being pursued.

Lake Erie

Fairport
Mine

Perry Reactor
13 km

WATCHMAN Design
WATer CHerenkov Monitoring
of Anti-Neutrinos:

Detector has target volume of 10.8x10.8
meter right cylinder of 0.1 % gadoliniumdoped water (1 kton).
Capture locations can be resolved with 1
meter vertex resolution (sigma) virtual
fiducial region.
1.0 meter buffer volume outside of fiducial.
And 1.5 meter active veto
Previous reactor monitoring measurements
relied on being situated in close (~25 m)
proximity to the reactor.

6

WATCHMAN Signal
Anti-neutrino undergoes inverse-beta decay.
Observe positron annihilation, 30us later
observe the Gd shower.
• Exactly two Cerenkov flashes
• within ~100 microseconds
• Within a ~ 1 cubic meter voxel

Detector Fiducial Mass
Reactor Power
Standoff
Overburden
Perry reactor antineutrino rate

7

1000
3875
13
1434
12

Total background (RMSIM,prelim.)

~2

Days to 3 sigma detection of
change in power (ON/OFF)

~2

ton
MWt
km
meters water equiv.
antineutrino or
antineutrino-like events
per day
<30 days is our target

Preliminary Background/Signal Estimates

WATCHMAN Background
Scaling up the detector in order to remotely monitor a reactor from kilometer
distances requires an increased understanding of the backgrounds:
Fast neutron rate capable of producing
two correlated events in a detector.

Muongenic beta delayed precursors

> 50 MeV n

m
n
n
9Li

8

b

n

m

Two Backgrounds, Two Detectors
WATCHBOY: Radionuclide
Detector

9

MARS: Fast Neutron
Spectrometer


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