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WO²¹uJ�«  UÝ«—b�«Ë Àu׳�« e�d� sŽ —bBð W¹—Ëœ W�UÝ—
Â≤∞±∏ q¹dÐ≈ Ø?¼±¥≥π Vł— ›∂≤
›∂≤
∂≤¤¤ œbF�« ≠ …dAŽ WFЫd�« WM��«

á«àjƒµdG äÉ°SGQódGh çƒëÑdG õcôe

á«MÉààa’G
∫∆—UI�« Íe�e�
 U�«—b�«Ë Àu���« e�d* b�b� wIzU�Ë »U�� —bB� œbF�« «c??� W�ö�≈ l�

œbF�« WOŠU²²�« •

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WÝ—bLK� “ö�« Êu½UI�« •
WO�—U³*« W¹dO)«

s� œb??� t� ÂU??� Íc??�« —Ëb??�« s� nAJ� …d??� ‰Ë_ dAM� WIO�Ë ≥∂π vK� qL�A�
dU� aOA�« u� ÕU�B�« ‰¬ s� qOK� r�U� rN�u�� ªUN�UO�√Ë X�uJ�«  ôU??�—
Íd�H�« fOzd�« `�√ r� ¨W�—bLK� Ÿd���« v�≈ …u�b�« œU� Íc�« ÕU�B�« „—U�*«

X¹uJ�« w� W�UI¦�« W½UO� •
dAŽ lÝU²�« ÊdI�« ‰öš
s¹dAF�« ÊdI�« qz«Ë√Ë

ÆtK�« tL�— ≠ t�U�Ë ÂU� v�≈ W�—bLK�
W�—bLK� «Î dO�� X�b� w��« b�U)« …d�√ t� X�U� Íc�« —Ëb�« s� p�c� nAJ�Ë
Æq�UI� ÊËœ U�—UL���U� X�U�Ë ¨UN�«u�√ vK� XE�U�Ë ¨…—u�c*«
¨UNOLKF�Ë ¨W??�—b??*« —UE� ¡UL�Q� öÎ BH� öÎ �� Ác??� b�U)« ozU�Ë ÂbI�Ë
o�u� Ê√ vK� UMd� w��« —u�_« s� p�– v�≈ U�Ë ¨UN�«u�√ WOLM� ‚d�Ë ¨UN�ö�Ë
W�Ëœ w� t��—U�Ë ¨rOKF��« ÊËR� w� 5��U��« ·dB� X% ÊuJO� »U�J�« p�– w�
ÆX�uJ�«
Í√ U�d�c� Ë√ UNO�≈ dA� r� w��« ozU�u�« pK� s� …b�«Ë œbF�« «c� w� ÂbI�Ë
s� œb� tOK� l�Ë Íc�« åW�—bLK� “ö�« Êu�UI�«ò w�Ë ¨rOKF��« a�—U� s� W�«—œ
Æœö��« w� WO�UE� W�—b� ‰Ë_ t� qLF�« «uC�—«Ë œö��« ÊUO�√
¨¨¨tK�U� ô≈ UMIO�u� U�Ë

»dF�« …d¹eł s� WFz«— …R�R� •
R�RK�« bOBÐ W�U)«  ULOEM²�« •
wÐdF�« qŠU��« w�
v�OŽ »U¼u�«b³Ž …cšuM�« •
WŠö*« ÂöŽ√ s� rKŽ w�UDI�«
X¹uJ�« w� …—U−²�«Ë
vKŽ X¹uJ�« …cš«u½  U½Ëb� •
W¹d׳�« WO�«dO�œ_« jz«dš
e�d*« W³²J� s� •

rOMG�« n�u� tK�«b�� Æœ Æ√

…b¹b'« e�d*«  «—«b�≈ •

‫ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻴﺔ‬

á«àjƒµdG äÉ°SGQódGh çƒëÑdG õcôe

©∞∞π∂µ® ≤≤≤±∞∏∏∞ ∫f�U� ≠ ©∞∞π∂µ® ≤≤≤±∞∏π∏ ∫  ≠ X�uJ�« ±µ¥∂± ∫Íb�d� e�— ≠ ÊUL�œ ±∞≤¥ ∫»Æ’
E-mail: crsk@crsk.edu.kw

-

homepage: http://www.crsk.edu.kw

‫‪á«àjƒµdG äÉ°SGQódGh çƒëÑdG õcôe‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﺍﳋﲑﻳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ )‪١٩١٢‬ﻡ(‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫‪((٦٢‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ‪) -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪٦٢‬‬

‫ﻫـ‪/‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ‪٢٠١٨‬ﻡ‬
‫‪١٤٣٩‬ﻫـ‪/‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺭﺟﺐ ‪١٤٣٩‬‬

‫‪á«àjƒµdG äÉ°SGQódGh çƒëÑdG õcôe‬‬

‫ﺗﻨﴩ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺃﴎﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﴎﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﻋﲆ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﺛﺎﺋﻖ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻫﺪﲥﺎ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻴﺔ ﺛﻘﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺑﲈ ﺳﺘﻜﺸﻒ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻭﻃﻨﻨﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻔﻲ ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪١٩١٢‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻧﺠﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﻮﺓ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﻘﻴﻖ ﻣﺒﻠﻎ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﱪﻉ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻷﻋﻴﺎﻥ ﻭﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻡ‪ ،‬ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻌﺖ‬
‫ﳉﻨﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺗﺴﲑ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺭﻛﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻠﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻃﻠﻘﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ "ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ" ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﲆ ﻣﺎ ﻳﲇ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -١‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﳉﻨﺔ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﳑﻦ ﻳﺮﴇ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺃﻫﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺑﻴﺪﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﻣﴫﻭﻓﺎﲥﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺮﺗﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﲔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٢‬ﻳﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻠﺠﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٣‬ﻳﻨﺘﺨﺐ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﻭﻧ ﹰﺎ ﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﲢﺖ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻌﺘﻬﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺭﻗﻴﺒ ﹰﺎ ﻋﲆ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﺆﻭ ﹰ‬
‫ﻻ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺡ ﻭﺍﻹﻧﺘﺎﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺘﻜﻔ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ‬
‫ﺑﺈﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﲢﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٤‬ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﹼ ﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺑﺪﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻫﻲ‪ :‬ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ‬
‫ﲡﻮﻳﺪ ﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﳋﻂ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺯﺍﺩ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﲆ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺗﺪﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﴫﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻘﺪﻡ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﲤﺲ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺷﻴﺌﺎ ﻓﺸﻴﺌﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٥‬ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻟﻸﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﳐﺎﻟﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﴩﻉ ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻒ ﰲ ﺃﻱ‬
‫)ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﴩ ﳏﻔﻮﻇﺔ(‬

‫ﺣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ ﻷﺣﺪ ﺍﻻﻋﱰﺍﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﱂ ﳜﺎﻟﻔﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﴩﻉ ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻒ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺎﺭ ﺧﻼﻑ ﺑﺘﺤﺮﻳﻢ ﳾﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺑﺎﺣﺘﻪ ﻓﺎﳌﺮﺟﻊ ﻟﻌﻠﲈﺀ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺍﳌﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺑﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﺼﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٦‬ﻻ ﺗﻘﺒﻞ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ‬
‫ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﺘﻀﻴﻪ ﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٧‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﳎﺎﻧﺎ ﻷﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﻏﻨﻴﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﻮ ﺍﳊﺎﻝ ﻳﻔﺮﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻛﻞ ﻋﲆ ﻗﺪﺭ‬
‫ﺣﺎﻟﻪ ﲢﺖ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺪﺧﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺧﺰﺍﻧﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٨‬ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﺳﺖ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺛﻼﺙ ﺻﺒﺎﺣﺎ ﻭﺛﻼﺙ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -٩‬ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﻮﻥ ﻳﺆﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﺍﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻳﻮﻣﻴﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻴﺲ‬
‫ﳍﻢ ﺭﺧﺼﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﻡ ﺍﳊﻀﻮﺭ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﺬﺭ ﴍﻋﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺻﺎﺭ ﻷﺣﺪ ﻋﺬﺭ ﳚﻌﻞ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻪ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﻤﻮﺍﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -١٠‬ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻤﲔ )ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻇﺮ( ﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻆ ﺻﺒﺎﺣﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻣﺴﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻳﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻣﴤ ﺍﳌﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -١١‬ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻣﺘﺤﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻤﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﻳﻮﻣﻴ ﹰﺎ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺱ ﺍﳌﺎﴈ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻬﺮﻳ ﹰﺎ ﺑﻤﺤﺼﻞ ﺩﺭﻭﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﻮﻳﺎ ﺑﻤﺤﺼﻞ ﺩﺭﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺑﺤﻀﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺃﴍﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺣﴬ ﺃﻋﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺪ ﻭﺗﻘﺮﺭ ﺭﺃﳞﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻧﺎﴏ ﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻣﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺍﻷﻋﻀﺎﺀ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﴏ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻀﻒ‪،‬‬
‫ﺷﻤﻼﻥ ﺑﻦ ﻋﲇ‪ ،‬ﲪﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ‪ ،‬ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﴤ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺷﻴﺪ )ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺭ(‪ ،‬ﻫﻼﻝ ﺑﻦ ﻓﺠﺤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﴩ ﺑﻦ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﺳﺎﱂ ﺑﻮﻗﲈﺯ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬‬
‫)‪(homepage: http://www.crsk.edu.kw‬‬
‫)‪http://www.crsk.edu.kw‬‬

‫‪á«àjƒµdG äÉ°SGQódGh çƒëÑdG õcôe‬‬

‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‪ :‬ﺷﻴﺨﺔ ﺧﻠﻴﻞ ﺳﻌﻴﺪﺍﻥ‬

‫«*‪W�bI‬‬

‫ﻋﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻂ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﺑﺄﺷﻜﺎﳍﺎ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﺪﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻨﻮﻋﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻧﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﺆﺳﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﲆ ﹺﺑﻌﺾ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺗﻴﺐ ﻭﺍﳌــﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻷﻫﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺼﺪ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺸﺒﺎﺏ ﳎﺎﻟﺲ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ ﻟﻼﺳﺘﲈﻉ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻋﻆ ﻭﺍﳋﻄﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺳﲈﻉ ﺳﲑﺓ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻝ )ﺻﲆ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ( ﺍﻟﻌﻄﺮﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﲈ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﺎﺭﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺗﻴﺐ ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﲆ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲈﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺎﺟﺪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻛﲈ ﺍﲡﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﻟﻠﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺎﺭﺝ‬

‫ﻋﲆ ﻧﻔﻘﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻔﻘﺔ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺤﺴﻨﲔ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﺑﻤﺮﺍﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﳌﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪﺓ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ)‪. (١‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﲡﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻠﺆﻟﺆ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺗﺴﻌﺖ ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﲈﻡ ﻟﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ)‪.(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻳﻌﺪ ﺍﻹﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ ﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﴎ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺃﴎﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﺔ ﺑﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬

‫ﺗﻌﻜﺲ ﺍﺯﺩﻫﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﺎﻁ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﲈﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﱰﺓ؛‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﻭﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺃﴎﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﻢ ﺷﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﲑﺍﺩ ﻭﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﻭﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﱪﻉ ﺑﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺷﱰﺍﻙ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺗﺎﺣﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺜﻘﻔﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﻬﺘﻤﲔ‬

‫ﻟﻼﻃﻼﻉ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫�‪UN�«Ëœ√Ë W�U�J�« œ«u‬‬

‫ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺯﺩﻫــﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺑﺎ‬

‫ﻭﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟــﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﲈﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﺒﺎﻝ‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﴩ ﻭﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬

‫ﻭﻣﴫ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﱂ‬

‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﲈ ﻇﻬﻮﺭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻧﺴﺨﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻘﻪ ﰲ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﳘﻮﺍ ﰲ ﻧﺴﺦ‬

‫ﻭﺗﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﳌﻼﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮﻳﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻟﻐﺎﻟﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﺼﺪﺭﺍ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻬﲈ ﻟﻠﺮﺯﻕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ )ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺗﻮﺛﻴﻘﻴﺔ( ﺍﳌﺠﻠﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻴﺔ‪٢٠٠٢ ،‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ ‪.٣٥‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﴩﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ﻭﺇﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻓﻠﺴﻄﲔ‬

‫ﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺇﻻ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﴩﻳﻦ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺫﻟﻚ ﱂ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﲆ ﳖﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ؛ ﺇﺫ‬

‫ﺍﲡﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺜﻘﻔﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻮﻟﻌﲔ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﺑﻮﺍﻛﲑ ﻭﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ‪٢٠٠٦ ،‬ﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﺹ‪.٥٢‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺩ‪.‬ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﻨﺎﺣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﺑﻤﴫ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ‬
‫ﻋﴩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳍﻼﻝ ‪١٩٩٦‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.٢٠‬‬

‫‪4‬‬
‫‪((٦٢‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ‪) -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪٦٢‬‬

‫ﻫـ‪/‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ‪٢٠١٨‬ﻡ‬
‫‪١٤٣٩‬ﻫـ‪/‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺭﺟﺐ ‪١٤٣٩‬‬

‫‪á«àjƒµdG äÉ°SGQódGh çƒëÑdG õcôe‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﻓﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﺎﺑﻊ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬

‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺮ￯‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺍﻕ ﻭﻣﴫ ﻭﻟﺒﻨﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻭ ﺍﳍﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﲆ‬
‫ﻧﻔﻘﺘﻬﻢ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ)‪.(١‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﻠﺐ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﻷﳖﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺭﺟﺎﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻭﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻛــﺎﻥ ﺇﻋــﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﺍﳉﻴﺪ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺑﻌﺾ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﲑﺍﻋﺔ‬

‫)‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻛﲈ ﺍﻫﺘﻢ ﻋﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺑﺘﻮﻓﲑ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬

‫ﺗﻨﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺎﺀ ﻟﻔﱰﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ ﲡﻔﻒ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ‬

‫ﺿﻢ ﺍﻹﺭﺙ ﺍﻟﱰﺍﺛﻲ ﻷﴎﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ ﺑﻌﻀﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﺍﻵﺧﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﻼﻡ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﺫﻭ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ‬

‫ﻟﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﻢ ﺍﻷﺩﰊ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬

‫ﺛﻢ ﻳﱪ￯ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺴﻦ)‪.(٣‬‬
‫ﹼ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﺧﻼﻝ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻌﺪﲏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻬﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﻼﻡ ﰲ ﳖﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ‬

‫ﻭﺗﻌﺪ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﴫ‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪١٨٢٢‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻇﻞ ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺎ ﺣﺘﻰ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬

‫ﺧﻼﳍﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﲇ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻣﺎﺭﺳﻪ‬

‫ﺳﺎﳘﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﻩ؛ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺧﺺ ﺛﻤﻨﻪ ﻭﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ‬

‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﱰﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻮﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻫﻢ ﻭﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﻣﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﴎﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ؛ ﻓﻤﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺥ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﱰﺓ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﲥﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻋﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﰲ ﻣﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﲥﻢ‪ :‬ﺃﻗﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻮﺭ ﻋﲆ‬

‫ﻧﻮﻋﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻗﻼﻡ‪ ،‬ﳘﺎ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﴩ ﰲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪١٧٩٢‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﱂ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺇﻻ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﴩﻳﻦ‪ .‬ﻭﲤﻴﺰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﺑﻌﺪﺓ ﳑﻴﺰﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻢ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻟﱪﻳﹺ ﹺﻪ ﻭ ﹶﻗ ﱢﻄﻪ )ﻗﻄﻌﻪ ﻭﺗﺴﻮﻳﺘﻪ(‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﹶ ﹾ‬

‫ﺳﻬﻞ ﻋﲆ ﻛﻞ ﻧﺎﺳﺦ‬
‫ﻓﺘﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺍﻷﺣﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﹼ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺗﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺐ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟــﺬﻱ ﻳﺼﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻴﺰﺭﺍﻥ‬

‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺴﻤﲔ؛ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻱ‬

‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺥ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﺤﺎﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﱪﻭﻧﺰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﻭﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺺ‪،‬‬

‫ﺃﻭﺍﻟﻘﺼﺐ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺻﻨﻌﻪ ﲣﻀﻊ ﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺒﺎﲏ ‪ :‬ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﺨﲑ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺐ ﺃﻗﻠﻪ ﻋﻘﺪ ﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻛﺜﻔﻪ ﳊ ﹰﲈ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﻠﺒﻪ‬

‫ﻗﴩ ﹰﺍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻋﺪﻟﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍ ﹰﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﻘﻠﺔ‪ :‬ﺧﲑ ﺍﻷﻗﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻛﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺘﺔ ﻋﴩ ﺇﺻﺒﻌ ﹰﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﺛﻨﻲ ﻋﴩ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻣﺘﻼﺅﻩ ﻣﺎﺑﲔ ﻏﻠﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺎﺑﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳋﻨﴫ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬

‫ﺣﺮﺹ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺥ ﻋﲆ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺃﺟﻮﺩ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺐ‪،‬‬
‫)‪ (١‬ﺩ‪.‬ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻴﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﺑﻮﺍﻛﲑ ﻭﺍﲡﺎﻫﺎﺕ‪٢٠٠٦ ،‬ﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﺹ‪.٢٧‬‬

‫)ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﴩ ﳏﻔﻮﻇﺔ(‬

‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻦ ﺍﳌﻌﺪﲏ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺼﻨﻊ ﻣﻦ‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻨﻮﻋﺖ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻟﻪ؛ ﻓﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎﻫﻮ ﻣﺪﺑﺐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮ‬

‫ﻋﺮﻳﺾ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺳﺦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﰲ ﺣﺠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳋﻂ ﻭﻧﻮﻋﻪ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﲇ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﳌﻘﺒﺾ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺻﻨﻌﻪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳋﺸﺐ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺝ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺳﺘﻴﻚ ﻭﻋﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ)‪.(٤‬‬

‫)‪ (٢‬ﺍﻟﲑﺍﻉ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺐ ﺍﳌﺜﻘﺐ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٣‬ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺱ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻘﺸﻨﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﺻﺒﺢ ﺍﻷﻋﺸﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ ‪١٩١٣‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪ ،٤٣٥‬ﺹ‪.٤٤١‬‬
‫‪(4) http://www.historyofpencils.com/writing-instru-‬‬

‫‪5‬‬
‫)‪(homepage: http://www.crsk.edu.kw‬‬
‫)‪http://www.crsk.edu.kw‬‬

‫‪á«àjƒµdG äÉ°SGQódGh çƒëÑdG õcôe‬‬

‫ﺃﻗﻼﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺐ ﻭﺫﻭ ﺳﻦ ﻣﻌﺪﲏ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﴎﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ‬

‫ﻛﲈ ﺍﺷﺘﻤﻠﺖ ﻣﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﴎﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ ﻋﲆ ﺯﺟﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﺃﺧﺬ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﱪ‬
‫ﺣﱪﺻﻨﻌﺖ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﴩﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺍﳉﺎﻑ ﰲ ﻗﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺤﱪﺓ‪ ،‬ﻻﺗﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﲆ ‪ ٣‬ﻣﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﺿﻌﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﴩﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﱪﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،Mabie Todd‬ﻭﲢﻤﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺑﺠﻬﺎﺯ ‪ FTIR‬ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ‬
‫‪ ،SWAN INK‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﳌﺤﺎﺑﺮ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻔﺤﺺ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﻋﲆ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎ ﺟﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺪﹼ ﺓ )ﲨﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪Tannic acid (Gallotannic‬‬
‫ﻣﺪﺍﺩ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺣﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺩﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺟﺎﺟﺔ ﺃﺧﺮ￯ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ‪ ،(acid‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻔﺺ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﲈﻕ‬
‫ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﺃﲪﺮ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺷﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻠﻮﻁ ﺍﻟﺼﺒﻐﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﱰﺍﻭﺡ ﻟﻮﻥ ﻣﺴﺤﻮﻗﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺃﺗﺎﺡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺤﺎﺑﺮ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻑ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺎﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﺻﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﺣﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺣﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﱰﺍﺕ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻪ ﻋﲆ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﺮﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﲢﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﺣﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﲢﺘﻮﻱ ﻋﲆ ﲪﺾ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻧﻚ ﺑﺄﳖﺎ ﺃﺣﺒﺎﺭ‬
‫‪ FTIR‬ﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﲥﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺣﺪﻳﺪﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺣﺒﺎﺭ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺄﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺀ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ‬

‫ﻭﰲ ﺍﳌﺤﱪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﺟﺎﺟﻴﺔ ﺭﻗﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﱪ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﳉﺎﻑ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻂ ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‬

‫‪0003KH-WI‬‬

‫‪ments-history/dip-pen-histo.‬‬

‫ﻳﺴﺒﺐ ﺗﺂﻛﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﴪ ﺗﺂﻛﻞ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ‬

‫ﻭﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﻭﺳﺠﻼﺕ ﺃﴎﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪6‬‬
‫‪((٦٢‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ‪) -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪٦٢‬‬

‫ﻫـ‪/‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ‪٢٠١٨‬ﻡ‬
‫‪١٤٣٩‬ﻫـ‪/‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺭﺟﺐ ‪١٤٣٩‬‬

‫‪á«àjƒµdG äÉ°SGQódGh çƒëÑdG õcôe‬‬

‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﲢﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬

‫‪CRSK-0003 KH-WI‬‬

‫ﳊﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻼﺕ‪ ،‬ﻛﲈ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﻴﲔ ﻭﲣﺼﻴﺺ‬

‫ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﳊﻔﻆ ﺃﻗﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﺟﺎﺟﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳊﱪ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﻣﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻇﻬﺮﺕ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﰲ‬

‫ﺑﺎﺩﺉ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬
‫ﳐﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﻫﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻳﻘﻮﻣﻮﻥ ﺑﻨﺴﺦ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻮﺹ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻋﴩ ﺷﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﴎ‬

‫ﺯﺟﺎﺟﺔ ﺍﳊﱪ ‪ – Swan Ink‬ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﴎﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ‬

‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﲔ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﺟﺪﺕ ﺿﻤﻦ‬

‫ﻣﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﴎﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ‬

‫ﺧﺸﺒﻴﺔ ﺳﻬﻠﺔ ﺍﳊﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﻘﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ ﳊﻔﻆ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﲥﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻤﻠﺖ ﻋﲆ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﳐﺼﺼﺔ‬
‫)ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﴩ ﳏﻔﻮﻇﺔ(‬

‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻗﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻧﺘﴩﺕ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺤﺖ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺳﺎﻁ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﳌﺜﻘﻔﲔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ ﻋﴩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺘﻰ ﳖﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﴩ ‪.‬‬
‫)‪(١‬‬

‫‪(1) Daniel Diehl, Mark Donnelly, Medieval furniture plans‬‬
‫‪and instructions for historical reproduction,1999.p.43.‬‬

‫‪7‬‬
‫)‪(homepage: http://www.crsk.edu.kw‬‬
‫)‪http://www.crsk.edu.kw‬‬

‫‪á«àjƒµdG äÉ°SGQódGh çƒëÑdG õcôe‬‬

‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﺍﲣﺬﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﳋﺸﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ؛‬
‫ﻓﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪ ،‬ﻛﲈ ﲤﻴﺰﺕ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺑﺴﻄﺤﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﺎﺋﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺢ‪ ،‬ﻛﲈ ﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﺖ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺧﺸﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﻮﺵ ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻮ￯‬
‫ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻱ ﻟﻠﲈﻟﻚ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ؛‬
‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ ﻧﻮﻉ ﳐﺼﺺ ﻟﻠﺠﻨﻮﺩ ﻭﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺧﺮ ﳐﺼﺺ ﻟﻠﺴﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻮﻉ ﺛﺎﻟﺚ‬
‫ﺻﻨﻊ ﺧﺼﻴﺼﺎ ﻟﻘﺒﺎﻃﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﳌﺤﻔﻮﻅ ﰲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﴎﺓ‬
‫ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ ﻳﺪﻝ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺳﺎﳼ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﲈﻡ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻣﺎﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﻭﻇﺮﻭﻓﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ؛‬
‫ﻓﻬﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﻳﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﲤﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻭﻧﻮﺍﺧﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻼﺀﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎﲥﻢ؛ ﻓﺘﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬
‫ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ ﺑﺄﳖﺎ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﺣﺠﲈ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻣﺰﻭﺩ‬
‫ﺑﻤﺴﲈﺭ ﻟﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﳌﻨﻊ ﲢﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺗﺄﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﻴﻨﺔ ﺑﺤﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﺝ‪ ،‬ﻛﲈ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺪﺛﺖ ﲠﺎ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﴪﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﻭﺣﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻉ ﻭﻣﻨﺼﺔ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺍﺀﺓ ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﺍﳌﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﳊﻔﻆ ﺍﻟــﻮﺭﻕ ﻭﺍﻷﻗﻼﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺯﺟﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﱪ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﻣﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻋﺜﺮ ﰲ ﺻﻨﺎﺩﻳﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﲆ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻟﻠﻮﺭﻕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻗﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺐ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ‬
‫ﰲ ﺗﺴﻄﲑ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﺻﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ)‪.(١‬‬

‫‪(1) http://www.hygra.com/writing.html.‬‬

‫ﺻﻨﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺘﺨﺘﺔ – ﻣﻦ ﻣﻘﺘﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﴎﺓ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪ‬

‫«‪X�uJ�« w� W�UI��« œ«u0 ÂUL��ô‬‬

‫ﺷﻬﺪﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻋﴩ ﻭﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﴩﻳﻦ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻐﲑﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺳﺎﳘﺖ ﰲ ﺇﻧﻌﺎﺵ ﺍﳌﲈﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺑﺈﴍﺍﻑ ﻧﺨﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺜﻘﻔﲔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺑﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻋﻤﲔ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻢ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻐﺐ ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻲ ﰲ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﱰﺓ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﴏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﲈﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻮﺍ ﻋﲆ‬
‫ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻈﻬﺮﺕ ﻣﻬﻨﺔ ﳎﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺃﻭﻣﺎﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻬﺠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺘﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ) ﺍﳊﺒﺎچ (‪.‬‬

‫)ﺣ ﹶﺒ ﹶﻚ(‬
‫ﺍﳊﺒﺎچ ﻟﻔﻆ ﳏﲇ ﻣﺸﺘﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﹶ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺪ ﻭﺍﻹﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺇﺟﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺞ‬
‫ﻭﲢﺴﲔ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﳊﺒﺎچ ﻣﻬﻨﺔ ﳛﻴﻂ ﲠﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻐﻤﻮﺽ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﻧﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﺤﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺮﻓﺔ؛ ﻓﻼ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ‬
‫ﻧﺸﺄﲥﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﲈﺅﻫﻢ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻫﻢ ﻋﲆ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻧﴩﻋﻦ‬

‫‪8‬‬
‫‪((٦٢‬‬
‫ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ‪) -‬ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪٦٢‬‬

‫ﻫـ‪/‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ ‪٢٠١٨‬ﻡ‬
‫‪١٤٣٩‬ﻫـ‪/‬ﺃﺑﺮﻳﻞ‬
‫ﺭﺟﺐ ‪١٤٣٩‬‬

‫‪á«àjƒµdG äÉ°SGQódGh çƒëÑdG õcôe‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺒﺎچ ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻄﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﴈ ﻭﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻨﺸﲑ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻻﺣﻘﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﻳﻌﻮﺩ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻟﻌﻞ ﺃﳘﻬﺎ ﻗﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻬﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬
‫ﻣﻬﻨﺔ ﺍﳊﺒﺎچ ﺑﺘﺠﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ ﺑﺪﺑﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﳉﻠﻮﺩ‬
‫ﺟﻌﻞ ﻧﻈﺮﺓ ﺍﳌﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﲡﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﳏﺪﻭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﳑﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺩ￯ ﺇﱃ ﻗﻠﺔ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﺍﳌﺤﱰﻓﲔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻛﲈ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺮ￯‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﲈﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﻓﺔ ﰲ ﺃﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻍ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﻗﲔ)‪(١‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﲈﺀ ﻭﻃﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﻔﻀﻠﻮﻥ ﻧﺴﺦ ﻭﲡﻠﻴﺪ ﻛﺘﺒﻬﻢ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻬﻢ)‪.(٢‬‬

‫ﻭﻻ ﺷﻚ ﰲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﺥ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﰲ ﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﺷﺠﻌﺎ ﻋﺪﺩﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﲈﺀ‬

‫ﻭﻃﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳌﺤﱰﻓﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﲔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﻕ ﻋﲆ‬
‫ﺍﳍﺠﺮﺓ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺒﻘﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻀﺞ ﺑﺎﳊﻴﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻮﻓﺪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺥ ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﻗﲔ ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬

‫ﻭﺃﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﺮﺯ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺎﺥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﻗﲔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻭﻓﺪﻭﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﰲ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ‬
‫ﻋﴩ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺠﺪ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ ﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺑﻦ‬

‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﲪﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﳌﺪﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﲔ)‪ ،(٣‬ﻛﲈ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺑﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﺍﳌﺠﻠﺪ ﺃﻭ )ﺍﳊﺒﺎچ( ﺣﻨﻴﺸﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻨﻴﺸﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻗﺎﻡ ﻓﱰﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‬

‫ﻭﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﰲ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﴩﻳﻦ)‪.(٤‬‬
‫ﻭﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻷﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﳊﺮﻓﻴﲔ ﺩﻛﺎﻛﲔ ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺣﻮﺍﻧﻴﺖ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻳﻘﺼﺪﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ؛‬
‫ﻓﻘﺪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺭﻭﻧﺎﻟﺪ ﻛﻮﺩﺭﺍﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻚ ﺍﳊﺮﻓﻴﲔ‬

‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﲔ ﺑﺘﺠﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﳚﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﺑﲔ ﻣﻮﺍﲏ ﺍﳋﻠﻴﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﺨﺬﻭﻥ ﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻳﲈﺭﺳﻮﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻋﲈﳍﻢ‪ ،‬ﺛﻢ ﻳﺮﺣﻠﻮﻥ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻴﻨﺎﺀ‬

‫ﺁﺧﺮ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﻋﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﺑﺎﺋﻦ)‪ .(٥‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺘﺎﺫ‬

‫ﻋﲆ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺲ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺒﻄﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬

‫ﳎﻠﺪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺃﻭ ﺍﳊﺒﺎچ ﻛﲈ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﻗﺪﻳﲈ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪﻳﺔ( ﻓﻴﻘﻮﻝ‪" :‬ﰲ ﺃﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﻴﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ‬

‫)‪ (١‬ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﻕ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻤﺘﻬﻦ ﺣﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺍﻗﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻳﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺒﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﺘﺴﺎﺥ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﻭﲡﻠﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻻﺷﺘﻐﺎﻝ ﺑﺴﺎﺋﺮ ﺃﻣﻮﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (٢‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻧﺠﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﴍ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﴩ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﻳﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪٢٠١٤‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪.٣٤١‬‬

‫)‪ (٣‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳌﻨﻴﻒ‪ ،‬ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﰲ ﻧﺠﺪ ﻣﺎ ﺑﲔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻧﲔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﴍ ﺣﺘﻰ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻋﴩ ﺍﳍﺠﺮﻳﲔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪٢٠١٤‬ﻡ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪ ،٢٤٨‬ﺹ ‪.٣٢٩‬‬
‫)‪ (٤‬ﻣﺪﻭﻧﺔ ﺃﲪﺪ ﺍﳊﻨﻴﺸﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺑﻮﺛﺎﺑﺖ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ ،Ronald Codrai (٥‬ﻣﺆﺭﺥ ﻭﻣﺼﻮﺭ ﺇﻧﺠﻠﻴﺰﻱ ﻋﺎﺵ ﰲ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﳌﺎﴈ ﰲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﴩ ﳏﻔﻮﻇﺔ(‬

‫‪9‬‬
‫)‪(homepage: http://www.crsk.edu.kw‬‬
‫)‪http://www.crsk.edu.kw‬‬


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